Definisi, Persiapan Dan Pasca Bedah Daerah Kepala Dan Leher

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Definisi, Persiapan Dan Pasca Bedah Daerah Kepala Dan Leher

Surgery is an operation performed on a part of the body (Smeltzer and Bare, 2002). Surgery (elective or emergency) is usually a stressful and difficult event (Brunner and Suddarth, 2002).

the next day before surgery. Patients will be given induction medication to give the patient adequate rest.

Prescribed anesthetics are usually Valium or diazepam. Antibiotic prophylaxis is usually given before surgery.

Prophylactic antibiotics are given during surgery to prevent infection, and prophylactic antibiotics are usually given 1-2 hours before surgery and continued 2-3 times after surgery (Sjamsuhidayat and Dejong, 2004).

The preoperative phase begins when the decision to perform surgery is made and ends when the patient is transferred to the operating table (Smeltzer and Bare, 2002).

Good during surgery helps reduce the number of preoperative operations and improve postoperative recovery. The purpose of the preoperative procedure (Luckman and Sorensen 1993).

Head and neck surgery is performed in patients with existing disorders, defects, or diseases of the head and neck, so a normal differentiation is necessary for further treatment.

Call yourself, prepare for surgery and surgery after head and neck surgery

The head and neck area is called

In medicine, otolaryngologists are a branch of medical science that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ear, throat, nose, head and neck (ENT). Several types of operations are performed on the animal's head and neck.

a. The outer part of the ear

A hematoma or atrial hematoma is a condition where a blood vessel in the ear ruptures, causing a pool of blood, caused by parasites or animals.

It is most commonly found in dogs, cats or pigs.

Aural Hematoma pada anjing hingga penanganan pasca operasi yang menggunakan metode bantal atau sering disebut Pillow Method.
Ear hematomas in dogs after pinning surgery or often called a pinning technique

B. the front part

Trepanation is a surgical procedure that allows you to open a cavity in hardened walls, such as a bone, through a hole in the skull. For example, sinus or medullary cavity surgeries. In large animals, trepanation is often performed to open the major maxillary sinuses, minor sinuses, frontal sinuses, frontal sinuses, nasal cavity, and mandibular cavity.

part of the mouth  

Tonsillectomy is a procedure performed as a result of persistent or chronic cough or so-called chronic hypertrophic tonsillitis, which is usually seen in dogs.

Operasi Tonsillectomy pada Anjing
Tonsillectomy in dogs

Dr.. section of the horn

Disarmament or better known as "Cut the horn". Drive with a knife into the shanks less than a week old, cutting the base of the horn 1/8 inch below the surface of the skin and ironing. For adult cows, the husk is removed standing (standing).

teknik dehorning pada sapi
(a) control by tying a long rope around the two horns; b) between two centuries. The actual method of dehorning is relatively unimportant if the corium is removed along with the base of the antlers. 

I. Part of the neck

Tracheostomy is an open tracheostomy that is performed if the animal suffers from respiratory diseases.

With respiratory disorders caused by edema and laryngitis, Persian and complete cartilage ossification process, which is a smooth trachea, next to the laryngeal surgery.
Ventricular laryngectomy in horses where ventral laryngeal surgery in horses was accompanied by repeated paralysis of the left laryngeal nerve in horses followed by paralysis of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles causing laryngeal hemiparesis.
Esophagastomy is a surgical procedure in which an incision or opening is made in the esophagus with a surgical site that can be palpated to detect an obstruction of the esophagus by a foreign body.

F. Eye region

  • Entropion is a condition where the eyelids bend or turn inward abnormally. Caused by conjunctival trauma, spasm of the orbital muscle of the eyelid, eye pain. With clinical symptoms such as superficial keratitis, blepharospasm (blepharospasm), bruxism, and congenital entropy, which are most often observed in sheep, it is caused by dispersal. A person experiencing entropion usually suffers from lower eyelids. The edge of the eyelid curls inward, causing the eyelashes to curl inward, causing conjunctivitis, keratitis, tears, and eye disease.
  • Ectropion is a condition where the eyelids are abnormally bent or turned outwards, causing the conjunctiva to open. It is usually congenital or acquired, and may also result from entropion surgery. Entropion can also result from aging and paralysis of the circular muscles. Ectropion is often found on the lower eyelids of dogs.

  • Dermoid is an overgrowth of the skin accompanied by hair growth of the conjunctiva, sclera, and congenital horn. The presence of skin and fur irritates the eyes, causing conjunctivitis and keratitis.
  • Extipartio Bulbus Oculi Intoto is surgery to completely remove the eyeball from the orbital cavity, and if the cause is a tumor, the eyeball, including the healthy staphylococcal muscle tissue, may also be removed. If the reason for the painful surgery is to remove the eyeball and leave as much tissue as possible so that the healing is quick and the eye is not too low. Before cutting the eyeball, its base should be bandaged to prevent bleeding.

  • Pulpsectomy and surgery

  • Eyelid tear surgery is a condition where the eyelid tear occurs due to many reasons, including the mechanism of injury to the eye area due to sharp objects or sharp objects or insects.

Preparation for head and neck surgery

The following preparations are usually prepared:

a. Preparation of patients (animals) for surgery

Surgical patient selection requires great care. Patients should always have a complete physical examination followed by laboratory tests. Laboratory and physical examinations help to determine the anamnesis of the disease.

We also collected preoperative information to compare the condition of the animals before and after surgery (eg, preoperative and preoperative spine status).

The animal had no physical abnormalities prior to surgery. An initial physical examination was performed and the dog was allowed to rest for several days to monitor blood chemistry and further investigate the possibility of this genital tumor spreading to the lungs and liver.

Pets serviced daily before surgery were oophorectomy and tumor removal bills. A thorough history of the animal's owner or owner helps to assess the problem affecting the animal and other possible problems.

Although emergency care is often required, an accurate history should be taken. History includes complaints, indications, diet, exercise, environment, past health problems, and treatment.

This history is important in determining whether the prescribed treatment was chronic or acute, antimicrobial, potentially nephrotoxic, or anticonvulsant, as was the case with the patient's infection.

Before taking action, the operator must understand what is about to begin. It is also necessary to consider and study the behavior of the patient who has to be operated on.

If, according to the results of the examination, the patient's condition is stable, then the operation can be performed. However, if the patient's condition is unstable, they are stabilized until they are stable and ready for surgery.

Most of the site preparations performed during head and neck surgery aim to secure the animal, especially the head and neck, and shave the animal's hair, if the operation is performed on a disnacular pad, the procedure is performed on a sterile carahol pad.

B. Preparation of tools, materials and medicines

Using operating instruments, then sterilizing the instruments and adjusting them to the type of operation being performed. After the procedure, the patient is taken under general anesthesia, local anesthesia or regional anesthesia: premedication, hemostatic, antibiotic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, injectable (LR, 5% dextrose).

in Preparation of the Operating Room

Keep the operating room clean and all equipment in the operating room sterile. In addition to ensuring that the floor and operating table are disinfected and that proper head and neck lighting is working.

Persian playing doctor

Competencies that operators must have:
  1. understand operational procedures,
  2. He can predict what may happen or describe the dangers that may arise when performing actions.
  3. can predict (predict) the outcome of surgery, Faust, Dubius, unfavorable,
  4. Personal hygiene is hygienic and includes personal care such as washing hands with soap, wearing surgical gowns, gloves, mouse pads, and masks.
  5. Physically and mentally ready
  6. And they have skills
  7. He should understand the possible difficulties after the operation.
  8. Assess the resistance to the actions taken.
  9. Determine/estimate the number of facilitators who will support the process.
  10. Determine the tools and medications needed.
  11. Correct and proper techniques can be determined/applied.

After head and neck surgery

Post-operative care that may be offered:

a. medication

  • Antibiotic. Antibiotics are very important in postoperative care. The purpose of antibiotics in postoperative care is to prevent bacterial infection at the surgical site.
  • Anti-inflammatory agent. Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs that have analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (anti-inflammatory) and anti-inflammatory (anti-inflammatory) properties.
  • residence Analgesic is an important medication in the postoperative period, because analgesics are drugs that can treat postoperative pain and its complications, such as nausea and vomiting.
  • Vitamin A, vitamin B complex, vitamin C (for maintenance therapy). It is important to give a complex of B vitamins, vitamin A and C. The purpose of using this vitamin is to increase the patient's (animal's) immunity.
  • Intravenous fluids (LR, 5-10% dextrose). Ringer's lactate and 5% dextrose is a postoperative treatment aimed at maintaining the patient's stable condition.
  • hemostatic; Hemostatics are the drugs that are necessary for diffusion because these drugs work to complete the process.

B. protection against wounds

  • Put a sick (animal) collar on Elizabeth. The purpose of using an Elizabethan collar to avoid surgery is not to shrink the (animal) wound.
  • dress the wound The purpose of dressing the wound is to keep the wound free from contamination by foreign organisms.

traffic restrictions in

  • A prisoner
  • bound or chained. Remember that the leg is behind so that it does not get scratched after the operation.

Doctor... Provide good food and fast for few days.

Treatment is indicated in patients with mild clinical signs and animals with a 50% reduction in collapse (phase I). Drug treatment of animals after surgery is symptomatic and palliative, not curative.

Patients (animals) are usually treated with a combination of antiviral, bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and sedatives. Patients rarely receive all of the above treatments and therapies tailored to their individual needs.

Control obesity and improve ventilation and air quality to suit the patient's environment. In addition, antibiotics Neurobion 0.5 mg/day IM and Nova 0.05 ml were administered three times over two days. Neurobion is prescribed to strengthen the nerves, and antibiotics are prescribed to prevent secondary infection.

Post-operative antibiotic treatment, and for new skin growth and lysis, Balsam of Peru ointment 20% mixed with the same amount as Jecores Ascelli IO% ointment is used.

During the recovery period, about two months after the operation, I tried to sew the skin once, but it didn't work because the skin that had formed was still fragile and not strong enough to hold.

Treatment with systemic antibiotics (Gentamicin 50 and Penstrep 200) was extended and varied, various epithelial stimulating ointments (Befanten TM and Perivian balsamic ointment 20%, Unguentum jeculanta kundanya per kg) were used.

Local research

In cases of recovery of animals with head and neck surgery, for example, hematomas in dogs, according to "WALTHAM Focus Vol 10 No. 4 2000, World Animal Care and Nutrition Authority” via sound installation. Then see the reason for the availability of surgical treatment.

Certain precautions in the preparation phase are very important, for example (in the case of hematomas) the use of gauze to prevent the hematoma fluid from leaking out of the bladder.

Hygienic and sterile procedures are very important in the surgical process, both during preparation and after surgery.

Ancillary equipment should also be prepared as much as possible before the head and neck procedure, for example, based on the magazine led by Nigel Woodford, in the case of horse teeth removal, which should be done on kaikai haratan, kaikai haratan, harkari harbada harbada. found Danathan Haratan and Nigel Woodford.

The recovery period after surgery should also be considered. Because it helps speed up or slow down the healing process in areas of the head and neck that have undergone medical surgical treatment.

Post-operative procedures are usually followed by the use of various prophylactic drugs to prevent secondary infection and to treat cases of fracture (eg tracheal collapse in dogs), as written by Alistair Gibson in Crollo stalking in Dogs ? and other therapeutic measures that promote the recovery of medically and surgically treated patients (animals).


Head and neck surgery is performed in patients with existing disorders, defects, or diseases of the head and neck, so a normal differentiation is necessary for further treatment.

Many precautions are very important in the preparation phase, sanitation measures and sterilization are very important in the surgical process, both during the preparation and after the operation.

Auxiliary equipment should also be ready as far as possible before head surgery.

Postoperative procedures are usually carried out with the use of various prophylactic drugs to prevent secondary infection and other medical procedures that promote the recovery of patients (animals) undergoing medical and surgical intervention.


Anonymous, 2010. (accessed 20 September 2013)

Beaudoin, O. 2013. Percutaneous cartilage injection. a prospective animal study in a rabbit model. Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 42:7.

Bergen. 2013. A systematic review of animal models of middle ear surgery. World J Otolaryngology 28; 3(3):71-88.

Ducarme J. Norma. 2011. Laser surgery of the upper respiratory tract. Cornell University. New York, USA.

Estaka, E. et al., 2008. Sinusoidal floor height. Animal model. Animal Anatomy, University of Murcia. Spanish. Res Oral Tax Clinic. 19, 2008/1044-1048

Eiarefe OD, Onguntoye KO, Emikpe BO 2013 A preliminary report on ear cushion treatment of ear hematomas. Department of Veterinary and Reproductive Surgery, University of Ibadan. Nigeria.

Gibson, Alistair. 2009. Tracheal Collapse in Dogs: Loop or Stent. Irish Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Earlswood Animal Hospital 193 Belmont Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Hickman, Holton, Edwards. Atlas of Veterinary Surgery.

Kilic, Noy et al., 2012. Surgical treatment of extensive epidermolysis bullosa of the central leg. Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Adnan Menderes University. 09016 - Iskele, Aydin, Turkey. Acta Centae Vetrinaria. 40 (2). 1041

Joyce, Judith 2000. Ear Hematoma, Croft Veterinary Hospital, Blyth. Northumberland, England.

Pearce, Chris. 2011. Tooth extraction in standing horses. Barn Horse Surgery, Ringwood Road, Three Legged Cross, Wimborne. Great Britain.

Tremaine Henry. 2011. Thoracic surgery in standing horses. University of Bristol. Langford, UK

Raharjo Budji et al., 1985. Lecture on General Surgery, University of Udhiana. Denpasar.

Sudisma Ngura et al., 2006. Veterinary Surgery and Operative Engineering, Udayana University . Denpasar.

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