Laporan Kasus Penyakit Canine Parvo Virus (CPV) case report

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Laporan Kasus Penyakit Canine Parvo Virus (CPV) case report


1.1:   Background:
Canine parvovirus disease, also known as canine vomiting, is caused by canine parvovirus (CPV). CPV infection was first identified in 1978 as a feline parvovirus mutation associated with feline panleukopenia (Boah, 1999). Mutations make this virus more specific to attack dogs.

All breeds can be infected with canine parvovirus , especially Rottweiler, Doberman Pinscher, Golden Retriever and Labrador Retriever breeds. This disease mainly affects young dogs between 6 weeks and 6 months of age, males and females, but older dogs can also be infected, although this is very rare.

Canyon parvovirus is a serious and highly fatal disease. If not treated promptly and properly, canine parvovirus can cause serious damage to a dog's digestive tract and eventually lead to death.

Currently, there is no cure for viral diseases, including canine parvovirus , but it is very important to provide prompt and adequate treatment or cure so that secondary stages from other bacteria do not worsen the patient's condition.

Canine parvovirus infection is a fatal disease in young dogs, but early detection and prompt treatment can help.

1.2:   Problem statement
Based on the above background, this can confuse the following issues.
one.         What is Canine Parvovirus ?
2.         What measures should be taken to treat canine parvovirus diseases?
1.3:   Purpose of writing
The purpose of this case study is as follows.
one.         Identification of parvovirus disease in dogs.
2.   Find out what steps to take if you have canine parvovirus.

1.4:   Benefits of writing
The purpose of this report is to provide information about canine parvovirus disease and measures to be taken in relation to cases of canine parvovirus disease in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University .

Chapter II:


2.1 Etiology of canine parvovirus
Parvovirus is a virus that belongs to the Pavoviridae family . Parvo comes from the word parvus, which means little. Parvoviridae have icosahedral virions and a single-stranded DNA genome. The spread of this virus is highly dependent on the active support of host cells (Mc. Carthy, 1980).

This disease was first detected in the US state of Texas in 1977 and then spread to different countries of the world. Canine parvovirus infection affects not only the digestive system but also the heart, which can be fatal in dogs (Kelly, 1979).

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is highly stable at pH 3 to 9 and 60°C for 60 minutes. Since this virus is not enveloped, it is highly resistant to lipid solubilization, but CPV virus is inactivated in 1% formalin, beta-propiolactone, hydroxylamine, 3% hypochlorite solution and ultraviolet light (Johnson and Spreadbrough, 1979).

There are two types of pavovirus that infect dogs: canine parvovirus 1 (CPV 1) and canine parvovirus 2 (CPV 2). Canine parvovirus -1 (CPV-1), also known as Canine Minute Virus , is a relatively well-known nonpathogenic virus that sometimes causes gastroenteritis, pneumonia, and myocarditis in very young puppies.

Canine parvovirus -2 (CPV-2) is more commonly known as the classical enteritis-like parvovirus (Tabor, 2011).

2.2 Pathogens of canine parvovirus
Dogs of any age can become infected due to maternal antibody deficiency or lack of vaccination if they are deficient or lack antibodies . The severity of this disease depends on the age of the infected animal, immune/antibody status, stress level and other diseases, including parasites (Lane & Cooper, 2003).

A study by Mildbrand et al. , (1984) showed that the amount of CPV in feces was sufficient to transmit CPV disease to other dogs. Therefore, faeces are one of the best specimens to be considered as a source of transmission and can also be used to diagnose CPV .

CPV is transmitted naturally through direct contact with CPV-infected dogs or through CPV-contaminated food (Appel et al ., 1980). CPV virus can be shed in feces, urine, saliva, and possibly vomit, and CPV is transmitted through food, utensils, and bedding .

You can forget about vertical distribution It occurs in pregnant dogs (Appel et al ., 1980) . The invading virus destroys the new generation of epithelial cells and the new bone marrow (Subronto, 2006).

The severity of clinical manifestations of CPV infection is highly dependent on the age of the infected dog. The smaller the infected dog, the more severe the clinical outcome.

The myocyte cells in the heart of 3-4 week old dogs are actively growing, so children infected with the CPV virus at this age often affect the heart, which affects the death caused by myocarditis, so it is the type that usually occurs. myocarditis.

On the other hand, with CPV infection at an advanced age, the number of myocyte cells starts to decrease, but the division of mitotic cells in the crypts increases, especially after 6 weeks of age, this infection causes diarrhea and vomiting. It is more common in heart disease and this type is often called enteritis type (Robinson et al ., 1980).

After the virus enters the body, it rapidly multiplies in the lymphatic tissue of the throat and then spreads to the bloodstream.

This causes a virus. After viremia, the virus rapidly replicates in the lymph nodes, intestinal crypts, and bone marrow. This causes a decrease in lymphocytes in the lymph nodes, necrosis and damage to the intestinal crypts.

When the infection spreads, the symptoms of the disease begin to appear. After 3-4 days of infection, the virus is shed in feces for up to 3 weeks. CPV infection in dogs may be more severe if secondary infection follows (Fenner, 1995).

Chapter III:
Medical company

3.1 Signs
            1 (one) checked tail Mixed breed female , brown and white . The dog's name is Bonnie, old . 5 months with a weight of 2.4 kg . The dog belongs to Mrs. Sri . Their address is Jalan Gambuk No. 11, West Denpasar.
3.2 History
Related  According to the owner , the dog's movement in the morning is normal , appetite is normal. During the day, when the dog suddenly vomited, there were no parasites and foreign objects in the contents of the note. Also, the dog cannot work (weak). On Big Blood Day, dogs immediately spit out the blood mixed with blood. This can be boiled and fresh blood in large quantities. P is given to this dog in the form of rice and chicken .
The dog was tied with 12 other dogs of the same breed or released at the owner's home . Before Bonnie got sick, there was a case where 3 dogs, Bruno, Osin and Gary, got sick with the same clinical symptoms, vomiting and blood, but nothing could help the three dogs. After this incident, the owner took the initiative to share services by placing the puppy on the 2nd floor and the spouse or adult dog on the 1st floor. Vaccination history Bonnie has not been vaccinated in the last 5 months. But once it was given as medicine.
3.3 Physical examination
On physical examination, the animal had pale eyes, pale skin, and abnormal CRT. There are no clinical changes in the respiratory organs , muscles, genitals and urinary tracts , ears , nerves and lymph nodes .
Dog body temperature a 39.2 °C with a heart rate of 152 s/min and a respiratory rate of 30 s/min and a body weight of 2.4 kg.
3.4 Experimental laboratory
3.4.1 Complete blood count

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Normal Blood Treatment
Reference value R
Class ism
6 - 17:00
x 10 3 / mm 3
5.5 - 8.5
x10 6 / mm 3
200 - 900
x 10 3 / mm 3


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