Mekanisme Infeksi pada Hewan

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Mekanisme Infeksi pada Hewan

Basic principles.
            A humphangan between two different organisms  There is a Warangal Sukuku to equalize, if an organism is too contrary to the mandate of another living organism, it becomes a parasite.

The form of parasitic symbiosis is reciprocal, where both parties benefit from each other. Contracts where one benefits and the other does not suffer.

If a man can live only in another organism, and as long as he is not sacred to the organization he occupies, he becomes an obligate parasite.

This also applies to the relationship between vertebrates and microorganisms, especially bacteria. Bacteria such as non-pathogenic Escherichia coli in Lactobacillus certen are inducers of chansalana in the small intestine, which reside outside the host itself and are active through the dual synthesis of vitamin K and vitamin B2 in the host organism. host.

Some cocci bacteria, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, are normal human skin flora that feed on the gut (human skin) but are not harmful to humans.

Many bacteria are obligate parasites of the intestinal tract of humans and mammals, for example Salmonella typhimurium, the causative agent of the Escherichia coli strain (ETEC, EPEC EIEC) that causes typhoid and diarrhea. These bacteria determine where to find a food source to grow and reproduce.

There are two ways bacteria multiply and then spread from mouth to mouth.

  1. Pollution, dust, nutrition, mosquito food through direct horizontal contact between healthy individuals and individual diseases
  2. In one species, vertically, from mother to child through eggs, milk. Salmonellosis samples from chickens will be transmitted through their eggs.

The interaction of microorganisms is represented by the microorganisms themselves  enter the darkness of the host's body and the duration of the host's tengoku sanctity. Microorganisms, especially bacteria, have several mechanisms for doing this.

  1. the ability to mix infection
  2. invasive range plotter
  3. Pathogenicity (ability of the host tsengor genus
  4. Toxigenicity (ability to produce toxins)

            Due to equality, microorganisms enter the body and multiply, which can cause infection. Infecting organisms such as pathogens use the means of a single host to reproduce and eventually infect the host. Pathogens that interfere with the normal functioning of the host can cause chronic wounds, gangrene, emaciated organs, and even blindness. The response to infection is called inflammation. In general, pathogens are usually grouped as microscopic organisms, although the definition is actually much broader, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses, prions, and viroids.

infectious virus images

picture cholera infection

Microorganisms invade and multiply under the pressure of the body mainly due to local cell damage due to metabolic disorders, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen-antibody reactions.

Splitter infection.

  1. Primary. if this happens directly as a result of the self-germination process of the microorganism
  2. Secondary: persuasion causes, for example, body langakam, shalmanan, languhan, wounds, etc.

Other types of infections

  • Re-infection. A disease that was initially present but then recurred. Also called "Relapse".
  • Super infection. the blocking process still didn't clear the edges and another infection followed. Also called "dual infection".
  • Infection. An infectious disease that is easily transmitted from one person to another. Also called "contagious".
  • Epidemic. an infectious disease that is highly contagious can sometimes spread to large numbers of people during fasting.
  • Epidemic. An epidemic spreading to other countries
  • Endemic: Persistent prohibition in a specific area
Pathogenic organisms have a way of living in the host's body  after passing

  1. Penetrates the external barrier of the host's body and can enter the host's salts,
  2. the mother is able to breed and reproduce in saline
A symbiosis between a parasite and a host in which one spider benefits and the other harms it is classified as parasitism. The field of medicine that focuses on infections and pathogens is the field of infection control.

It is generally divided into two large groups
  1. Infections classified as due to exposure to antigens outside the body
  2. Infections that are spread cheaply through body fluids or secretions, such as the HIV virus, because the virus cannot survive outside the body.
These pathogenic bacteria have the ability to produce toxins that act as a means to damage host cells and then obtain inappropriate nutrients from the host's salts. In general, two types of exotoxin processes can be distinguished in bacteria: endotoxin and exotoxin.

            Pathogenic bacteria can produce toxins that serve as a means to damage host cells and then obtain necessary nutrients from host cells. In general, two types of exotoxin processes by bacteria can be distinguished: from endotoxin to exotoxin .

Difference Between Exotoxin and Endotoxin
It is produced in a highly concentrated liquid environment with the salt of living bacteria
It is produced by salting dead bacteria
consists of polypeptide molecules,
It consists of a lipopolysaccharide complex, where the fatty group is a factor that determines the level of toxicity.
Relatively unstable priority; When damaged at temperatures > 60 0 C, the venom will reduce toxicity
Tanabasana is still stable at 60 0 C for 2 hours without toxicity
is antigenic; Ability to stimulate Muzangian antibodies. It can stimulate the formation of antitoxin
No antigenic effect, unable to promote antitoxin absorption. It can only use antibodies against the polysaccharide group
Can be made from toxoid. Formalin, acid, peramine, etc.
Toxoid cannot be prepared
It has a highly toxic property that is fatal in very small doses in experimental animals
The dose is low enough to cause tsengama
Lighter, higher doses turn off
High doses are needed to achieve sigma
Do not laugh at the warm attitude of the host
It causes fever in the host

Some bacterial exotoxins that can damage cells.

  1. Diphtheria. caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae , which can develop in the upper respiratory tract or wounds. C. diphtheriae is a lysogenic strain  Toxin production at the site of the venom is then absorbed by host protein synthesis and significant necrosis of the cellular epithelium, cardiac muscle, kidneys, and nerves. 
  2. tetanus . Tetanus toxin can cause muscle spasms in an infected host
  3. botulism . Neurotoxin-producing bacteria with 6 types of antigens. Toxins are absorbed in the intestines and enter the bloodstream, attacking the motor nerves, causing vomiting, shortness of breath, respiratory paralysis and other motor paralysis.
  4. Gas gangrene. Clostridium perfringens, another clostridium causes. Gas gangrene is a symptom of infection, a long-term effect of gas accumulation due to clostridium exotoxins.
  5. Food poisoning due to staphylococcal infection causing enterotoxins in meat, cow's milk and bakery products. Enterotoxin is very stable at 100 ° C for 2 minutes. Acquired regurgitation: vomiting of contaminated food.
  6. plague. Vibrio cholerae in contaminated food or food or feces mixed with food will multiply and produce enterotoxins that cause severe diarrhea.
  7. Toxic shock syndrome. (STTS-1) is an example of staphylococci with painful skin sores, high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and rosin-like patches.

Extracellular enzyme-2 
Some bacteria have a characteristic  production of indirectly poisonous substances without participating in the infectious process. These substances are enzymes whose scientific purpose is to obtain nutrients from their salts. These enzymes are designed for:

  1. Collagenase. Produced by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens, it is a proteolytic enzyme capable of cleaving collagen.
  2. Coagulase. produced by some staphylococcal species that bind to serum factors; Coagulated plasma This enzyme acts on the fibrin area of ​​the mouth caused by staphylococcal infection.
  3. Hyaluronidase. is an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the hyaluronic acid used to anchor the host faucets. Semangan from hyalurondase becomes a barrier for salt-supporting bacteria to reach host organs. Enzymes produced by bacteria: staphylococcus, clostridia, streptococcus, pneumococcus
  4. Streptokinase (fibrinolysin). An enzyme that can liquefy fibrin from coagulation factors so that bacteria can freely enter the host.
  5. Hemolysis and leukocidin.  It is an enzyme containing hemolytic enzymes produced by streptococcal bacteria that can hemolyze the host's blood (erythrocytes). Leukocidin. an enzyme that can lyse host leukocytic cells.
  6. Protease. an enzyme produced by bacteria that hydrolyzes immunoglobulins.

infectious agent
Initiator of taxi infection of Sabaji species with varying persuasiveness in maximizing and closing advanced infection.

For example, at one end of the spectrum, one viable microorganism may be sufficient to cure a disease (e.g., Richettsia tsutsugamushi), while another microbe, a million or more organisms, may not be sufficient to cure a disease (e.g., Salmonella typhiakis).

Only two characteristics are shared by an infectious agent to be isolating characteristics.

  1. First, the infectious agent must be able to replicate in the host tissue. Infectious material must be able to receive enough nutrients for oxygen, stable pH, temperature and fugas.
  2. Second, the infectious pathogen must be able to survive the host's defense mechanisms long enough to reach the critical mass required to cause disease. Any second of the host defense mechanism will clearly indicate that the infectious process is weakened.

The stage of infection
Microbes (bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi) have a begging salt-holding mechanism. In summary, these germs can be infected by 4 things, namely:

  1. Adhesive
  2. Colonization (propagation)
  3. Penetration
  4. Invasion

While the strategy for

  • Defeat adhesions by surface immunosuppression (IgA) by smoothing the surfaces of the skin and mucous membranes and primarily through a live vaccination program using eye drops, nasal drops, and mouth drops. Desamortization is a refuge for vitamins such as ADE and vitamin C, which play a major role in the skin salt regeneration process in the lens and also act as natural killer salt activity and antioxidants that generate salt macrophage.
  • In closure, the activity and number of salt-salt phagocytes should be reduced by feeding with substances used as immune stimulants. Infiltration and invasion can be achieved through a lethal vaccination program and general activity and cellular phagocytic activity and then antibody immunity in the blood through lymphocyte cells (humorous immunity).

Stadiums - Infkazi, Stadium

Stage rental
Incubation stage
Patient/clinical stage
Treatment phase / late disease

Stage rental
At this point, the animal is still relatively healthy, but age, physical condition, behavior/lifestyle, socio-economic, etc. affect the disease. such as vulnerable or unstable, tending factors. These predisposing factors impair the availability of isolation agents (pathogenic microbes) for interaction with the host.

Incubation stage
Incubation, also called germination, is the period from the moment microbes enter the body (when they become infected) to the moment of infection. Sepiat bacillus incubation period. Transmission of the disease can survive the incubation period

The length of the incubation period is affected by:

1. Types of microorganisms
Each disease has a specific incubation period depending on age. Sometimes this incubation period is constant, other times it is not.

Gumtuna, acute infection, the incubation period is uncertain. Another factor that affects whether the incubation period is permanent is the absence of a transmission period. In chronic diseases like tuberculosis. The incubation period is unclear because we do not know when the infection begins.

images of infectious tuberculosis

2. Virulence of microorganisms or virulence and number of microorganisms
These two factors are related to each other. Virulence is a measure of the severity of the microorganism and the microorganism. The more microorganisms there are in the body, the more virulent the microorganisms are. The number of microorganisms entering the thread from an infectious method.

The virulence of a microorganism is determined by the presence or absence of inhibitors in its composition. In general, it can be concluded that the more virulent the disease symbol, the more virulent microorganisms will be affected, but this is not always true, since the resistance of the animal's organism can be the same.

3. Conjugation enriching the culture of microorganisms and conjugation with toxins of microorganisms.

It is related to virulence. Viral microorganisms will multiply faster and release toxins if the debris is freed.

4. Front door (entrance of microorganisms)
This may change the incubation time. Entry of microbes can be mediated by lymph, but entry can be covered directly by blood, then Megham's barrier will also be safe. Once it entered the bloodstream, it was sepsis.

5. Endogenous (host or host tolerance)
Physiologically, the animal's body perceives the immune system as a sukuk due to the introduction of isolating microorganisms. This system is also called the immune system, which involves blood cells and other tissues. Immunity system strength is not correct or due to lack of sufficient nutrients such as protein, vitamin C etc. rich foods.

phase sick
sick is sick. The convalescent phase is the breakdown of organ function that can lead to signs and symptoms of the disease. In the process, the blocker will be released gradually. In the early stages, the signs and defects of the barrier are still obvious.

suffering is still capable of daily activities and can still be managed with outpatient treatment. At the final stage, it is impossible to eliminate the disease with outpatient treatment, because the shoulder disease is severe both objectively and subjectively.

At this point, the patient is no longer able to carry out his daily activities and where should he go for Gumtuna braids treatment. Microorganisms transmitted through the nose, mouth, ears, eyes, urine, feces, ulcers, wounds, skin, internal organs

These pain stages or clinical symptoms may occur separately.

  • Acute: several days or weeks
  • Chronicle. lasting several months or years

Treatment stage
At some point, the trip that gets in the way will also be linguistic. Block trip can be completed with alternative 5.

  • Perfect: The patient lives sempeklan, that is, the function of the body's cells/tissues/organs returns to normal.
  • Treat the disability. He was suffering from sablu disease, but despite his presence in saca. A disability can be a physical disability
  • Carrier (carrier). The dreamer's fear journey is like a revelation that brings with it the symptoms and prevention of the disease. Provided that the infectious agent is still present and has the potential for transmission as a source.

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