Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan

Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan - Hallo sahabat Fish Media Article, Pada Artikel yang anda baca kali ini dengan judul Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan, kami telah mempersiapkan artikel ini dengan baik untuk anda baca dan ambil informasi didalamnya. mudah-mudahan isi postingan Artikel Histologi & Patologi, yang kami tulis ini dapat anda pahami. baiklah, selamat membaca.

Judul : Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan
link : Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan

Baca juga

Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan

Cardiovascular disease

This term is commonly used to describe the presence of heart and blood vessel disease. This disease occurs when there is a partial or complete blockage in the coronary arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle (ischemic heart disease).

If the blood flow gradually decreases, it can cause myocardial damage (damage to the heart muscle).

Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan
normal heart

normal heart

Blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cava. When the heart beats, blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle.

Next blood flows from the right atrium to the pulmonary artery. Blood leaves the lungs and returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins in the left atrium. Further, blood flows through arteries to other parts of the body.

Myocardial Pathophysiologist

  1. Maintain blood supply to surrounding tissues.
  2. It absorbs oxygen and nutrients while releasing CO2 and other metabolic products.
  3. It distributes hormones and maintains warmth and other effects.
  4. The heart has 3-5 times more functional reserve capacity and this can be reduced in disease.

To achieve adequate results, a compensatory mechanism is developed.
These methods include:
  1. open heart
  2. Myocardial arterial pressure
  3. Increased heart rate
  4. Increased blood pressure and increased blood volume.

Anomalies of the heart and blood vessels (congenital)

Arterial patency

In the fetus, blood enters the lungs through the ductus arteriosus, a small blood vessel that arises from the pulmonary artery through the aorta. If the blood flow to the lungs is markedly increased and the blood flow through the arteries is soon stopped.

Within days of birth, the lumen of the fallopian tube closes and becomes permanently occluded as an artery. With this birth defect, the lumen remains open and blood flows between the pulmonary artery and the aorta.

In severe cases;
Heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis (miniature and toy poodles)

Pulmonary stenosis

Emergence of arterial lumen through fibrous connective tissue. Blood must flow to pass through the narrow opening. This anomaly may cause right ventricular hypertrophy.

Editor's Comment

Aortic stenosis usually occurs in relatively short regions around the ductus arteriosus, but can also occur in long regions.

This lesion is associated with other abnormalities that cause inadequate blood flow in the left vena cava and artery. This condition is known as infant adjustment.

Ventricular Septal Defect

In the embryonic stage, veins are a bag, and then divided into right and left veins. Growth of the septal membrane from the cardiac apex of the interventricular septum and the bulbous artery is prevented from reaching both ventricles.

A ventricular septal defect occurs when the septa and membrane fail to fit. In some cases, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy cause a shift in blood flow from the right ventricle to the left (cyanosis).

Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan
An atrial septal defect (ASD) has been described.

Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan
The heart is thought to have an atrial septal defect (ASD).

Great ship crossing

It is quite possible that the coronary arteries have changed, the abdominal cavity has passed from the right artery and the pulmonary artery from the left. Sometimes the pulmonary artery and aorta are not separated, remaining large vessels (fixed truncus arteriosus). It also occurs, but usually the pulmonary artery and aorta do not exit the right vena cava (the two outlets of the right ventricle) (cow).

Collection of four plays by Fallot

Four natural functions that can be performed simultaneously in a person. Inconsistencies considered:
  1. Ventricular Septal Defect
  2. I had my aorta replaced
  3. Pulmonary and subpulmonary stenosis
  4. Right ventricular hypertrophy


Acute Heart Failure (ARF)

The immediate cessation of active contraction of the heart muscle results in brain tissue death within seconds. It can be caused by anoxia, poisoning, myocardial necrosis, shock, hemopericardium, or pulmonary artery occlusion.

If the focus of acute heart failure is minimal:
  1. Not accompanied by hemopericardium (cardiac tamponade).
  2. The thrombus does not close.

The main lesion is systemic or pulmonary congestion. Edema does not occur as there is no leakage of plasma. Right side clearance can be increased.

Chronic Heart Failure (CHF)

Often referred to as congestive heart failure, it is caused by the heart's inability to maintain blood flow.

CHF is divided into two types, namely left ventricular failure and right ventricular failure. Left-sided heart failure is caused by myocardial, aortic, and mitral valve disease, various birth defects, or arterial hypertension.

Increased pressure in the pulmonary veins and alveolar capillaries causes congestion and edema. In the walls of the alveoli, cell hypertrophy and fibrosis are found.

Emoterin is found in macrophages in alveolar plasma (heart failure cells). Plasma increases due to renin and angiotensin.

Chronic right sided heart failure

  1. It is also known as core pulmonale because of its action on the lungs.
  2. Secondary lesions may also be found in internal organs and portal circulation.
  3. Liver injury includes compression and necrosis, atrophy, and fibrosis of the centrilobular region.
  4. Swelling due to pressure on genital veins.

the myocardium

Atrophic myocardium

On macroscopic examination, palpitations of normal size can be detected.

with a microscope
Cardiac muscle fibers decrease in size proportionally, increasing from core to fiber. Excessive staining of lipofuscin in local nuclei (lack of nutrition).

Myocardial hypertension

It can occur in both ventricles. Microscopically, myocardial fibers are thickened, numerous and enlarged.

Right ventricular hypertrophy may be due to fibrosis of the alveolar wall tissue, chronic passive compression, pneumonia, or pulmonary stenosis.

Left ventricular hypertrophy is caused by aortic stenosis, arterial hypertension and nephrosclerosis.

edema / oedema

  1. Myocarditis is usually caused by hematogenous infections and various systemic diseases.
  2. In the disease, rarely, foci of myocarditis are primary and lead to death.
  3. With myocarditis, various types of inflammation can occur, for example: purulent-hemorrhagic, lymphocytic-necrotic inflammation.

Purulent myocarditis

Local infection with pyogenic bacteria may occur, usually with left-sided endocarditis.

Macroscopically: Myocardium appears pale.
Microscope: Abdominal cavity contains many neutrophils.

Necrotizing myocarditis: Toxoplasmosis is a common disease that usually affects dogs and cats.
  1. Hemorrhagic myocarditis is especially common with black legs.
  2. Lymphocytic myocarditis is a common viral infection in puppies, including parvovirus. The dog died of sudden cardiac arrest. The heart appears disorganized with lymphocytic infiltrates, intranuclear bodies, and fibrosis.


A variety of primary and secondary neoplasms can occur in or near the heart. Primary neoplasms include: rhabdomyoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, schwannoma, and hemangiosarcoma.


  1. Essential neoplasms in dogs and these tumors may arise from metastatic tumors from other sites. The tumor is found in the right atrium and sometimes in the right ventricle.
  2. Macroscopically: Red-black blood masses are visible on the surface of the epicardium.
  3. Fractures can cause hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade.
  4. Microscopic: Tumor cells (endothelial cells) are elongated and spread like blood vessels.
  5. Metastases often occur in the lungs.

Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan

Chemodectomas (cardiovascular cancer)

  1. In the first stage of the tumor in the elastic tissue of the heart, it arises from the lower part of the heart, which leads to blockage of blood vessels and heart failure.
  2. These tumors are called aortic body tumors or chemodectomas.
  3. Aortic tumors can be large, surrounded by a white solid mass, and can compress the vessels and atria.

with a microscope
Polyhedral cells have a tumor-like shape, their cytoplasm is empty and supported by stromal connective tissue.

Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan

blood vessels

Aneurysms and ruptures

An aneurysm is a localized dilation of a weak and thin blood vessel. They are usually found in arteries, but lesions can also affect veins.

Causes include copper deficiency and canine spirochera infection, but most cases are idiopathic.

Arterial malformations

It may occur after a previous major injury or it may occur suddenly. Horses are particularly prone to aortic rupture. Death is rapid due to cardiac tamponade

Arterial blood pressure

This reaction is a continuous increase in blood pressure. Usually in the small pulmonary arteries and this condition is associated with parasitic infections: Aerolostrogellus obstrasus, Toxocara and Dirofilaria immitis.

However, lesions are often seen in the absence of parasitic infection. High pulmonary arterial pressures have also been found in cattle raised at high altitudes.


However, in many animals, age-related diseases are often asymptomatic. This disease leads to progressive and progressive disease of the blood vessels, resulting in loss of elasticity (hardening of the arteries) and hardening of the lumen.

Macroscopically: Blood vessels are visible, hard and white.
Microscopy: A dense shell with deposits of mucopolysaccharides.


The following vascular diseases are important to humans but also occur in animals. It is caused by a buildup of fat, fibrous tissue, and calcium that circulates in the arteries. Pigs, rabbits and chickens are very susceptible to this damage.

Microscopy: Macrophages in adipose tissue and middle shell in muscle tissue. Necrosis and fibrosis may also be found.

Arterial count

The most common lesions in animals include: calcigenic plant poisoning, vitamin D poisoning, kidney failure and severe weakness. Jan occurs in cattle with disease.

Microscopy: Basophilic mineral deposits in arteries.

Fibrinoid necrosis

These lesions are associated with endothelial injury and are characterized by infiltration and deposition of serum proteins and fibrin within the vessel wall. These lesions are often found in pigs and diagnose vitamin E deficiency, selenium (Heart) and mercury poisoning.

In children with vitamin E selenium deficiency, lesions may present as hemorrhagic and hepatic necrosis with severe bleeding.

Thrombosis from emboli

This is the result of a blood clot or thrombus.
Prerequisites include:
  1. endothelial injury,
  2. bleeding problems,
  3. hypercoagulation

Endothelial injury is seen in arteritis. Circulation disorders can occur with damage to blood vessels or damage to heart valves. A hypercoagulable state is seen in dogs with amyloidosis and some kidney diseases.

Dilated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

Caused by various damage to blood clotting in arteries and capillaries. Subendothelial collagen exposure is a phenomenon that accompanies platelet aggregation as a result of endothelial injury. Activation of the intravascular coagulation process.

Diseases that often accompany DIC include:
  1. Disease caused by bacterial endotoxin
  2. Some viral infections: feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), canine infectious hepatitis (ICH).
  3. Heartworm
  4. Some tumor diseases.
  5. Shock, hemolysis, massive necrosis.

Under the microscope:
Arterial and capillary fibrin thrombi (multiple fibrin thrombi) are deficient in the DIC component.


  1. Obstruction of blood vessels by foreign objects, such as: blood clot fragments, neoplasm cells and bacteria.
  2. Thrombosis may result from sterile or septic injury.

  3. Demikianlah Artikel Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan

    Sekianlah artikel Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan kali ini, mudah-mudahan bisa memberi manfaat untuk anda semua. baiklah, sampai jumpa di postingan artikel lainnya.

    Anda sekarang membaca artikel Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan dengan alamat link

    Subscribe to receive free email updates:

0 Response to "Patologi Sistemik pada Hewan"

Posting Komentar