Patologi Tulang dan Persendian pada Hewan

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Patologi Tulang dan Persendian pada Hewan

bone type

Compact lamellar bone, cortical. Arranged in concentric layers called lamellae. Haversian ducts and blood vessels are located in the center. It is usually located at the edge of the bone.

Cancellous bone marrow consists of trabeculae attached to the bone marrow. Usually indoors.

Patologi Tulang dan Persendian pada Hewan
bone structure

Transverse structure of a long bone

  • paralysis; It is characterized by the presence of a bone marrow cavity from the inside.
  • The epiphyses located at the ends of the bones
  • the Kurds. It is located between controversy and Almeshash. ossification site
  • Articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of long bones.
  • periosteum; The bony part of the edge of the bone.
  • bone lining. Part of the bone cavity also has orthopedic properties.
Patologi Tulang dan Persendian pada Hewan
piece of bone

bone cell type

  1. Osteoblasts: the cells that give rise to tl. They are found in developing TL cells, and their function is osteogenesis and production of prostaglandins, alkaline phosphatase (bone minerals). It plays an active role in the regeneration and remodeling of the bite and the balance of calcium and phosphate ions in the blood.
  2. bone cell. Derived from osteoblasts embedded in their own matrix. The space occupied is called a hiatus. Its function is to form TL, maintain the balance of matrix and calcium.
  3. osteoclasts. Cells responsible for uptake of tl. These cells are large in size, and many of them are located in an area called Hausship lacunae. These cells perform the same role as osteoblasts. Mature osteoclasts migrate and spread over the surface of the bone.

From the bone matrix

  • Collagen makes up 85%-90% of the total bone protein
  • Non-collagen proteins are few but very important.
    • Fibronectin, osteopontin as glue
    • proteoglycans
    • Osteocalcin contains gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Important for bone regeneration
    • Growth-related proteins: beta-TGF and insulin-like growth factor beta.
  • Hydroxyapatite (non-proteinaceous). This is bone calcium (calcium phosphate).


  • Joints: joints with minimal movement
    • syndrome; Frontal bone with dense fibrous tissue, as in the skull.
    • chondrodysplasia. Bones adjacent to cartilage, such as the pubic symphysis.
  • Defect: movable joints.
    • articular cartilage
    • joint capsule
    • synovial membrane

ossification image

  • Osteotomy (to the bone). The mother matrix secreted by osteoblasts before mineralization.
  • Woven bone. Osteocytes are absent and bone forms randomly. All bones come from adherent bones.
  • The exposed spines then become trabeculae.
  • Woven bone is transformed into cortical bone and bone.
  • Bone is formed in two ways.
    • Membrane ossification (on the skull).
    • petrification center development
    • calcification
    • trabeculae
    • periosteal formation

  • cartilaginous ossification (occurs in the long bones)
    • Starting with the appearance of the cartilaginous form
    • The cartilage model is growing
    • The primary ossification center (the fetus) develops.
    • The medullary cavity develops
    • Development of a secondary ossification center
    • The epiphyseal growth plates and meniscus are formed.

Patologi Tulang dan Persendian pada Hewan
Calcification within the cartilage

Patologi Tulang dan Persendian pada Hewan

  • Reconstruction is a process of bone resorption accompanied by small changes in shape that can occur throughout life.
  • Modeling is a change in the shape and outlines of disease and normal growth.

Term referring to skeletal abnormalities

  • Dystrophy: disorders caused by malnutrition.
  • Dysplasia: abnormal growth.
  • Amelia: Neither a leg nor both were found.
  • Hemilia. The long leg is uncovered.
  • Vacumilia. Contracture of the legs, arms and feet that are in direct contact with the body.
  • tangle. The size and shape of the bones are the same, but they should be different.
  • Syndactyly: joining adjacent fingers.
  • kyphosis; The spine is bent back.
  • scoliosis; The spine is bent to the side.
  • Curvature of the spine. Spine curves back.
  • Lord. The spine curves ventrally.


This is a disease of osteosclerosis ( increased bone mass ) that occurs in dogs, sheep, horses, and some other laboratory animals. It is caused by the inability of osteoclasts to absorb cartilage, filling the bone marrow cavity with cartilage. Bones are dense (without a bone marrow cavity), but they break easily.

The bones are not complete

A disease of cattle that affects bone tissue, teeth and tendons. Clinically in cattle such as easy bone fractures, joint weakness, and dental defects. Bone tissue lacks collagen and osteonectin.

Metabolic bone disease


The term refers to the presence of pain and fracture. There is a decrease in bone mass (osteoporosis), but the mineralization process continues.
  • Other signs:
    • Decreased thickness of the cortical bone layer
    • Trabecula disappears
    • The spinal cavity disappears

Rickets and osteomalacia.

The disease manifests itself in the bones of young people and adults , respectively. Rickettsia is caused by vitamin D deficiency and phosphorous deficiency. At the same time, osteomalacia (imperfect calcification of the bones ) occurs due to calcium deficiency .

fibrous dystrophy

This lesion occurs as a result of osteoclasts resorption and replacement of bone tissue by fibrous tissue. It may occur secondary to hyperthyroidism.
signs of this defeat.
  1. Weakness and pain in the bones
  2. pathological fracture
  3. distortion
  4. Young animals are confused with rickets.

It occurs in young animals whose diets are low in calcium and high in phosphorous.
FO Features:
  1. Bones break easily
  2. Common leaves are destroyed
  3. The vertebrae and ribs are deformed

Renal osteodystrophy

  • Diseases caused by kidney failure. Dogs are the most common animals with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Clinical: bone pain, ease of tooth loss, deformity of the upper and lower jaw.
  • launcher:
    • Glomeruli do not work
    • Violation of phosphate secretion
    • Insufficient production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
    • acidosis

Bone inflammation (osteitis)

  • It could be caused by:
    • bacteria
    • virus
    • musty
    • the simplest
  • Traits: weak and stubborn

Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone marrow cavity) is often chronic.

  • Characteristic.
    • Necrosis and bone loss.
    • New bone is formed.
    • Bacteria enter the bone through:
      • open fracture
      • Sinusitis, gingivitis, or otitis media
      • purulent arthritis

Proliferative lesions ( excessive bone growth)

It can be found at:
  • Bone healing after a fracture
  • Chronic osteomyelitis
  • joint degeneration
Osteoarthritis is the presence of a growth protruding from the surface of the bone.

Cranial bones (lion's jaw)

  • In particular, pests are found in West Highlanders or Scottish Terriers.
  • The lesions are bilaterally symmetrical with new bony formation in the mandible, occipital, temporal, and other parts of the body.
  • In dogs aged 1-7 months, the disease may go away after some time.
  • Affected animals also have difficulty chewing, and the head muscles may atrophy.

osteochondrosis (chondrosarcoma)

  • Found in dogs, cats, and horses
  • In horses and dogs, the lesions are hereditary.
  • The tumor protrudes above the surface of the bone in the form of a foreign body near the growth area.
  • Lesions can be found in the long bones, ribs, vertebrae, scapula, and pelvis.

bone tumors

  1. fibroma sclerosis
  2. fibrosarcoma
  3. chondrosarcoma
  4. Chondrosarcoma
  5. bone
  6. Osteosarcoma
  7. Osteosarcoma of the lower jaw

joint disease

Bone joints (joints).
  1. As a framework framework for communication
  2. can take steps
  3. as a loader
  4. Protected by synovial fluid
  5. It connects the two ends of the bone formed by the capsule and the ligament.
  6. The inner surface of the capsule is covered with a synovial membrane.
  7. The ends of the bones are covered with articular cartilage.
  8. The joint space contains synovial fluid, and fibrocartilage is present in several places.
  9. The synovial fluid has a low coefficient of friction and is self-lubricating.
  10. Synovial fluid is protein, clear, colorless and viscous.

Features of the articular cartilage.
  1. From white to blue
  2. Flat surface
  3. Fat
  4. Fat on young
  5. Thin and yellow aging.

Loss of proteoglycans (transforming substances) leads to:
  1. Lubrication failure
  2. Collagen fiber damage
  3. Collagen fibers thicken and narrow (fibrillation)
  4. Fibrillation, which causes the meniscus to shorten, causes the surface of the subchondral bone to become dense, shiny, and hard (burned).

hip joint deformities

  • It is found in dogs and livestock.
  • hereditary
  • One year later, a new disease was discovered
  • Injuries consist of:
    • articular cartilage degeneration
    • articular surface abnormalities
    • articular bone
    • burning

work injuries

  • Arthritis (inflammation of joint structures).
  • It is characterized by the presence of cells in the synovium.
  • They are distinguished by the causes, duration and nature of the secretions: serous, purulent, fibrous and lymphatic.
  • Synovitis. Inflammation limited to the synovial fluid.
Arthritis can be very dangerous for the following reasons:
  • There is a lot of pain
  • permanent disability
  • paralysis

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