Pencemaran Udara dan Permasalahanya

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Pencemaran Udara dan Permasalahanya

Indonesia's environment and livelihoods have been on the brink of destruction for over three decades due to overexploitation. People are increasingly marginalized and ostracized for their rights to a decent life.

In addition, vulnerable populations are most affected by the damage. There is a need to bring people back to their dacha life quickly and increase people's resilience to the threats to their dacha life.

Pencemaran Udara dan Permasalahanya

Pencemaran Udara dan Permasalahanya
maqam maqam pinsmaran blow
Law 23/1997 defines the environment as a single room with rye.

Oleg In this regard, we can definitely say that the quality of life and human well-being are determined by the environment. The definition of the environment also includes what is defined as natural resources: "Natural resources are all objects, forces, conditions, functions of nature and living things that are the result of natural processes, such as Haykhaupati Maunati."

Agrarian defines the environment, namely the entire earth, air, space, including the natural resources contained therein (according to Law No. 5 of 1960).

Causes and environmental damage relate to the existence of the carrying capacity of soil, water, impacts and the diversity of life and natural resources contained therein.

However, social sustainability refers to the viability of social institutions in political, economic and cultural terms; Therefore, environmental management reform should be relevant to these efforts to strengthen social resilience and resilience.

According to the big cats, population growth and economic growth occur very rapidly, usually in areas of settlement, transportation and industry to meet the needs of man in the form of prana itself.

Added to this are technological advances made by people to improve the quality of life and comfort of life for the positive and negative members of Damak. Negative effects - violation of the balance of the environment.

A form of sadness, namely the difficulty in maintaining quality and clean air. The scintillation that occurs is the most serious pollution problem in urban areas.

As a result, air pollution can endanger human health, the preservation of plants and animals, damage materials, reduce visibility and cause unpleasant odors.

Air pollution is the entry or sale of living things, matter, energy and / or other components in and / or changes in the composition (composition) of the air as a result of activities or natural processes, quality.

Therefore, efforts must be made to prevent or reduce the impact.

One of the measures that can be taken to address the problem of air pollution is reforestation or acquisition of urban forests (green open spaces); can be in the form of plants, green space, gardens, courtyards and forests, which can act as urban lungs and provide people with the oxygen they need and reduce the levels of some air pollutants.

Definition of a hit and a broken hit

Air is a mixture of gases found in the layer surrounding the earth. The composition of the gas mixture is not always constant and changes again and again from time to time.

Components with different concentrations are air in the form of water vapor and carbon dioxide. The amount of air trapped by an impact varies with weather and temperature.

From the point of view of meteorologists, air is distinguished by the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that do not react with each other (inside).

The atmosphere consists of a layer of mixed gases, so it is often not perceived by human senses unless it is in the form of a liquid (water vapor) and a solid (avanes and dust).

The atmospheric layer has a height of about 110 km from the earth's surface and most of it is below 25 km because it is cut off by gravity.

The air contains a certain amount of oxygen, which is a vital component for both humans and other living beings.

Normal explosion is a gas mixture with 78% N2; 20% O2; 0.93% argon; 0.03% CO2 with added neon (Ne), helium (He), methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2). Conversely, when other gases are added to them, causing disturbances and a change in composition, they say that the air is polluted.

The atmosphere in a clean and dry state is dominated by 4 formations of atmospheric gases, namely 78.09% N2; 20.95% O2; 0.93% argon; at 0.032% CO2; while other gases are very low in concentration. Air dry matter, ie all moisture removed and relatively constant.

Animals absorb nitrogen when it is in the form of compounds. Nitrogen compounds in the form of ammonium and nitrogen dioxide dissolve in very small amounts in rainwater. Aside from that,

Beats often lose quality due to human changes. Changes in this quality can be in the form of changes in physical properties or chemical properties.

Chemical changes that can take the form of a reduction or addition of any of the chemical components found in the air are commonly referred to as air pollution. The quality of the effects used for life depends on the environment.

Somewhere they found scattered and harmful dust everywhere.

Likewise, a city polluted by motor vehicles or traffic can cause health problems.

Unpolluted air contains water vapour, inert gases and aerosols, which are very fine mixtures of solid and liquid particles. Aerosols are liquid or solid particles suspended in a gas.

Aerosol particle size from 0.001 to 100 microns. Particles larger than 2.5 µm in diameter are usually considered small and particles larger than 2.5 µm are considered large.

In addition to gases, aerosols are also affected, consisting of dust, ash, salts and soon also particles. Dominant type of aerosols from impacts causing environmental pollution. In general, big cats have relatively higher aerosol concentrations compared to the ocean. There are two types of spray sources, namely primer and stopper.

Primary aerosols, aerosols emitted directly from various sources (e.g. dust carried into the air by wind, or particles removed from the chimney as quickly as possible).

Secondary aerosols follow particles formed in the atmosphere, which undergo chemical reactions with gas components.

Strikes are never clean; some gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) from waste decomposition.

Pencemaran Udara dan Permasalahanya
Fog is coming soon

In addition, fine solid or liquid particles can be dispersed from the air by wind, volcanic eruptions, or other natural disturbances such as soil. Sources of pollution are natural, namely the result of human activities.

The CO2 concentration is always low (about 0.03%), mainly in mountainous areas, over orchards, in fields being crushed or in the sea.

This relatively low concentration is due to the uptake of CO2 by plants during photosynthesis and the solubility of CO2 from the air.

Plants in an ecosystem act as the first producers, converting solar energy into potential energy for other living things and converting CO2 into O2, so reforestation overcomes the CO2-rusty ecological crisis in words.

However, not all trees are resistant to pollutants, as pollutants can damage leaf development and plant growth. The resistance of each plant species is thought to be influenced by genetic traits, including leaf morphology (leaf shape and surface area) and leaf anatomy (stomata density and arrangement).

The definition of penetration is the introduction or introduction of living beings, substances, energy and/or other components into the air and/or a change in the composition (composition) of the air by a person or in the process of changing nature KLH n. 02/ Herren-KLH/I/1988).

BAPEDAL (1999) defines air pollution as pollution of the atmosphere by gases, liquids or solid wastes and by-products in a concentration and time sufficient to cause loss of life or life.

Also, it can damage your eyesight and emit an unpleasant odor. Another definition given by KLH (1987), World Bank (1978), and Kanter (1977) is that air pollution has one or more pollutants, or a combination thereof, in the atmosphere at a given amount and time due to consequences of centuries of activity . on the environment that can be obstructive, hewan, collision., and on property or injury to the comfort and enjoyment of life and property.

Air pollution does not clearly recognize the boundaries of its zone of influence, other areas of the city or the well. The problems associated with hit attacks can even spread to different countries. This is due to various factors affecting the distribution such as: B. the set of pollutants, geographers, topography and climatologists.

However, Kastievati has stated that air pollution is the condition of the air that is polluted by the presence of foreign materials, substances, or other components in the air that cause changes in the structure of the air as a result of human activity or human activity.

Air pollution affects the living systems of creatures such as B. Health issues, ecosystems associated with humans.

Types of bit fraud, by form (gas, particulate matter) and by location (vacant premises/indoor/outdoor bit and). Health issues: Iritania, asphyxia, anesthesia, toxicosis. By origin: primary, secondary.

Pencemaran Udara dan Permasalahanya
Effects of blackout strikes on health

Pencemaran Udara dan Permasalahanya
Environmental impact of the bombing

Duda pollution materials or substances can be in the form of gases and particles: Gaseous pollutants can be divided into:

The sulfur group consists of sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfate aerosols.

The nitrogen group consists of nitrogen oxides (N2O), nitrogen monoxide (NO), ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

The carbon group consists of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons.

Gases Hazardous groups consist of benzene, vinyl chloride, aryl raksha vapors.

Particle punch lighting is divided into:

  1. Minerals (inorganic) such as mercury and lead can be toxic.
  2. Organic matter consists of hydrocarbons, chlorine and alkanes, benzene.
  3. Living things are made up of bacteria, viruses, eggs of worms.
Depending on location and source, there are two stations for widowers:

  1. Air pollution (air pollution), free sources of free air: nature resulting from volcanic eruptions, decay, etc. For example, human activities are related to industrial, domestic activities, vehicle emissions, etc.
  2. Indoor air pollution (door air pollution) in the form of indoor air pollution from communities, offices or high-rise buildings.
The Pentsemaran Strike may also be involved in:

  1. primary emitter. Young pollutants have the same form and composition as their emission, commonly referred to as primary emitters, between lines of CO, CO2, hydrocarbons, SO, nitrogen oxides, ozone and various particles.
  2. second pitcher. Different pollutants sometimes react with each other to form new types of pollutants that are actually life-threatening. This reaction can occur automatically or with the help of a catalyst such as sunlight. The pollutants produced during the reaction are called secondary pollutants. Examples of secondary pollutants are ozone, formaldehyde and peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN).

cause of pollution

Air sources can be divided into two groups according to their movement, namely:

  1. Stationary sources of pollutants (industrial, residential and power plants) that emit the following pollutant elements into the atmosphere: acid mist, nitrous oxide, CO, particulate matter, hydrogen sulfide (H2Kil), NH3, chlorine, H2S, flour, lead, acid gases, pennies, mercury, cadmium , arsenic, antimony, radionuclides and smoke
  2. move (cars or vehicles) that emit CO, SO2, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter.
According to Andrews (1972), the causes of camouflage fall into three groups, namely:

  1. Surface friction such as sawing, digging, digging (wiping) of some materials (asphalt, earth, iron and wood) to remove solid particles of different sizes.
  2. Evaporation comes from volatile liquids such as gasoline, paint oil, and vapor generated in the metallurgical, chemical, and other industries.
  3. Combustion such as burning fossil fuels (petroleum, diesel, gasoline, coal, wood burning, etc.). Burning TB. it is an oxidation process that produces CO2, CO, SOx, NOx gases or hazardous substances that do not burn completely.

The number of pollutant loads, in particular SOx and NOx, is divided into three groups: natural, anthropogenic and mixed. Natural processes that lead to an increase in the concentration of SOx and NOx in the air are:
  1. biological degradation process
  2. Activities related to volcanoes
  3. geothermal activity and
  4. lightning or thunder.

Anthropogenic sources of pollution or as a result of human activities lead to massive consumption of fossil fuels.

A mixed source of pollution between the two is the use of fertilizers in agriculture, through biological processes releasing SOx and NOx into the air, and wildfires. (Anonymous) stated that about 70% of air pollution in Indonesia is caused by motor vehicles.

Cars emit hazardous substances into the atmosphere that can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment, such as lead/lead (Pb), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), HCCO) and photochemical oxides ( bulls ).

Vehicles based on almost 100% lead, 13-44% particulate matter (SP), 71-89% hydrocarbons, 34-73% NOx and almost exclusively carbon monoxide (CO) in Jakarta.

The main source of dust is municipal solid waste incineration, which accounts for 41% of dust sources in Jakarta. Industry is the main source of sulfur dioxide. Based on congested areas in Jakarta, lead concentrations could be as high as 100 times the threshold.

Meanwhile, the growth rate of motorized vehicles from Jakarta reaches 15% per year, so that in 2005, the number of motorized vehicles from Jakarta is estimated at 2.8 million vehicles.

As the number of vehicles increases, fuel consumption will increase and the amount of pollutants released into the air will increase.

In 1999, premium consumption for transportation reached 11,515,401 kiloliters [Indonesian Petroleum Statistics, 1999 Annual Report of the General Directorate of Oil and Gas]. For every liter of premium quality produced, the lead (Pb) content is 0.45 grams, so the total amount of Pb emitted into the air is 5,181,930 tons.

The Jakarta Urban Development Project estimates that reverse concentrations in Jakarta reached 1.7–3.5 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) in 2000.

According to Bapedalda Bandung, concentrations have reached 4.57 ppm (PP 41/1999 quality standard: 0.24 ppm), NOx has reached 0.076 ppm (quality standard: 0.05 ppm) and dust has reached 172 mg/m3 (quality standard: 150 mg / m3).

Taskwati (1993) reported the results of air quality monitoring in the Ravasari area, which showed that the mean values ​​of TSP, NO2 and SO2 were 148 Hg/m3, 9.28 Hg/m3 and 1.06 Hg/m3, respectively . In the Pulogadung area, the average TSP NO2 and SO2 values ​​were 168, 14.7 rt. m3 and 0.79 rt.

Pencemaran Udara dan Permasalahanya
The composition takes into account

The average NO2 value assigned to SO2 by the two monitoring bodies does not exceed the maximum value set in the Ambient Air Quality Criteria for the Jakarta DKI area.

The average TSP level at Pulogadung and Ravasari stations still meets the criteria. TSP values ​​tended to be lower in 1992 than in 1991, while the SO2-adjusted NO2 parameter showed a significant increase. This suggests that special attention should be paid to gas sales.

Sources of air pollution from DKI Jakarta are usually associated with activities such as manufacturing, transportation and daily household activities.

Judging by the DKI area of ​​Jakarta, there are different types of industries said to be based on air including food processing, beverage manufacturing, wood processing, basic chemical industry, non-metallic mineral manufacturing, non-ferrous metal manufacturing and textile industry. However, the news sources that are quite important are related to traffic.

Самым высоким ударным загрязнением находятся участки дорог, которые наиболее загружены и загружены памробкамри.

Стрельба по свалке

Воздействие на здоровье, вызванное загрязнением воздуха, будет накапливаться день ото дня. In terms of the long-term perspective, it is reserved for the different problems that are in place, and also about the armor.

Влияние бит-матчей на здоровье у разных людей разное. Бледно-уязвимое население — это группа пожилых людей и малышей.

Согласно исследованию, проведенному в Соединенных Штатах, группа малышей в шесть раз более уязвима по сравнос.

Групesis малышей уолее уотому что оолее а, следовательно, дольше воздуха, поэе б б бt

Воздействие самого свинца ужасно для клопов-людей, особенно клопов-детей. Влияет на когнитивные функции, способность к обучению, уменьшает рост, снижает функцию слуха, влияет на поведение и интеллект, повреждает функции органов тела, таких как почки, нервная система и репродуктивные органы, данкан дананка и катуксанка.

Он также может вызывать анемию, а у беременных женщин, подвергшихся воздействию свинца, он влияет на ребенка, находящегося на грудном вскармливании, и накапливается в грудном молоке.

Подсчитано, что е 199д социальная ценность, которую долhus этот лидер, составляет 106 миллионв сш и reports 850 850 Загрязнение, вызванное как можно скорее, что отмечено увеличением уровня запыленности воздуха с помощью стандартного индекса загрязнения воздуха (ISPU).

Лесные пожары Джамби, произошедшие с августа by сентябрь 2004 g.

Ожидается, что количество больных ОРЗ будет увеличиваться, поскольку пожары будут продолжаться. Причина ОРЗ, вызванная ИСПУ Джамби, достигла порога опасности около 300 - 500 mm.

Suara Pembangunan (2004b) сообщила о том, чкольников беспокоиtr the поэтому правительство поручило закрыть школы, начиная с детского сада and заканчивая средней школой.

Это большая потеря для местного населения. Потому что происходит торможение интеллекта людей медленно. Если район часто берет каникулы на время обучения, то со временем район будет испытывать отставание в науке по сравнению с другими районами, где воздух безопаснее.

However, if the intellectual property is large, it is not necessary to plan in other materials. Свинец, также известный как черный свинец, мешает овощам and фруктам, потребляемым детьми.

Несколько лет назад Программа ООН по окружающей среде (ЮНЕП) поставила Джакарту на третье место среди самых загрязненных городов мира после Мексики и Бангкока. Можно избавиться от остроты угрозы этого столичного загрязнения загазованностью. Несмотря на то, что не иеть дело сфиф фактами, индоне°и дети класифиририße.

Еще одна вещь, на которую следует обратить внимание, — это загрязнение воздуха из-за сигаретного дыма. Беременные женщины, которые курят, могут быть смертельными для плода, который они содержат. Кровеносные сосуды матери сужаются, так что кровоснабжение ребенка блокируется.

Младенцы будут страдать многими думпаками, а именно задержкой роста тела and задержкой умственных способностей. Питание попретему яется вактором для мазвития мозга, но не стоит недоценивать и.

И что еще более важно, несмотря на то, что загрязнение от забастовок в Индонезии относительно велико, нет ни одного доступного эксперта по здоровью от забастовок. That's what it's all about.

В развитых странах наличие врача-специалиста очень необходимо при возведении крупных городских полисов.

Воздействие загрязнения воздуха может влиять на живые существа прямо или косвенно.

Воздействие SO2 на растительность может вызвать побледнение между костями или краями листьев. Выбросы фтора (F), диоксида серы (SO2) and озона (O3) значительно ассимилируются.

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