Strongyloides (Nematoda)

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Strongyloides (Nematoda)

Strongyloides are from the genus Nemathelminthes , subclass Cesarantea , from the class  Nematodes , ord or R. habditida , Superfamily Subuluroidea , Family Strongyloididae Placed in the genus Strongyloides .

These worms are called hookworms . Adult worms can be parasitic or free. Parasitic form 2 - 9 mm in length and thin, and which are found only in female worms, which are parthenogenetic females (reproduction does not occur through the process of mating).

The eggs may develop outside the host and then develop directly into infective larvae, which are parasitic or free male and female larval forms. This worm has a long esophagus and a cylindrical shape, the vulva is located in the middle of the back of the body, the tail is short, and the eggs contain embryos.

Free form Female and male worms have a rhabdite-shaped esophagus, with the female worm's upper part at the top of the valve located in the middle of the body.
Parasitic form
Filamentous esophagus without a posterior bulb, the infective larvae of the parasite generation are able to penetrate through the skin and follow the bloodstream .

One.       life cycle
The life cycle of this worm consists of parasitic and free generations. the generation  for free What the male has, the resulting female worm is the one that produces the embryonated eggs. Production consists of 4 stages , namely larval L1, L2, L3 and L4. In the L1 stage ( rhabditoform ), eggs hatch into worms that are excreted in the faeces of the infected host .

Homogeneous life cycle passes through the host body, this cycle begins with first stage larvae that can develop directly into infective stage 3 larvae, then heterogeneous life cycle is the life cycle outside the host body.  Where there are male and female worms that can mate outside the host's body and produce larvae to infect

If environmental conditions support a heterosexual cycle, then male dominance, and if they do not support a homogeneous cycle, then male dominance.

In a heterogeneous cycle, first-stage larvae rapidly metamorphose into free-ranging male and female adult worms within 48 hours. When mated, the female can produce eggs that hatch within hours and then transform into infective larvae. A free-ranging female produces only one generation of larvae.

In a homogenous cycle, stage I larvae rapidly develop into third stage larvae (infestation), which dry at 27 0 C for about 24 hours . Infective ( filamentous ) larvae that develop in moist soil contaminated with feces , then enter through the skin and enter the larva 's body. Blood flows to the heart and reaches the lungs .  

couple - couple  The larvae penetrate the walls of the capillaries into the alveoli, ascend the trachea and then reach the epiglottis. Sea urchin larvae are swallowed and into the digestive tract , reaching the upper part of the intestine, where the female worm becomes an adult.

Adult worms are female worms that reproduce by living partogenesis attached to the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa, particularly in the duodenum, where the adult worms lay their eggs .

The eggs then hatch , releasing non-infective larvae A form of rbdite.  These rhabdite-like larvae migrate into the intestinal lumen, leave the host in the feces, and develop into filarial infective larvae that can infect the same host or other animals . It is also possible that these rhabdite-like larvae, after entering the soil, develop into male and female adult worms.

Fertilized free-ranging adult female worms can lay eggs, which soon hatch into non-infective rhabdite-like larvae, which metamorphose into filamentous, infective larvae 24-36 hours later.

Sometimes , in some animals, rhabditiform larvae can immediately transform into filariform larvae before exiting the animal's body and penetrating the intestinal wall or skin in the perianal region , causing autoinfection and persisting for years.

Figure 1: Life cycle of Strongyloides in children

2.       Types of strongloids
a)    Strongyloides papillosus
Strongyloides papillosus has a large mouth and opens into a buccal capsule, which may have the effect that when this parasite feeds, it takes a piece of intestinal mucosa and enters the buccal capsule. This parasite is a parasite in which the nematodes damage the epithelium of the small intestine, which prevents absorption in the intestine. Decreased absorption of nutrients in the small intestine can cause malnutrition in infected animals.

Strongyloides papillosus is transmitted through food or through the host's skin barrier. Therefore, itchy and itchy symptoms often occur where the skin is exposed to these worms .

These worms are found in the intestinal mucosa of sheep, goats , cattle , rabbits and ruminants worldwide . These worms can affect the condition and age of animals of all ages . However, the level of infection in young animals is higher than in old ones .

Female worms produce oval thin-walled embryonated eggs measuring 40-64 x 20-42 µm . Free-form female body size ± 1 x 0.05 mm, esophagus ± body length , short and open, uterus is a straight line containing 40-50 eggs.

The vulva opens on the side of the abdomen near the center of the body. Male worms are free-living, 700-825 microns in length. It is armed with a strongly curved spiculum about 33 microns long and a gubernaculum 20 microns long and 2.5 microns wide. Delivery time is 7-9 days .

The parasite form of the female body is smooth and transparent, measuring 2.2 x 0.05 mm, but the esophagus is filamentous with the body . In pregnant women, the uterus contains 10-20 eggs, one of which contains an embryo.

Ventral side 1/3 length of posterior part of volva body to him. Since there is no male parasitic form, it is clear that the female parasitic form reproduces parthenogenesis in ruminants . Body size of rhabdite larva ± 380 x 20 units , esophagus small and open, genitalia large and oval, exposed near intestine.

Echo is running. Body size of filamentous larva ± 630 x 16 u but mouth closed, esophagus running along body , tip of tail short or bluntly barbed.

Figure 2. Egg of Strongyloides papillosus

an egg  Elliptical, medium sized (40-60 x 20-25 microns ), with an ornament Absence of polar and cover birds Larvae are thin and

b)       Strongyloid Redemption
Strongyloid Redemption Parasitic parthenogenetic female worms, found worldwide in the intestinal mucosa of pigs, produce eggs with embryonated skin, 3.3-4.5 microns in length and 54-62 microns in diameter and ellipsoid, usually measuring 45-55 x 26-35 microns.

Free-living male worms are 868–899 µm long with a curved spiculum 26–29 µm long and a 18–19 µm long. Free-living female worms are 1.0 - 1.1 mm long. Prenatal period is 3-7 days.

Figure 3. Strongyloides ransom eggs

 Figure 4. Strongyloides ransom worms

c)       Strongyloides westeri
Strongyloides westeri Found worldwide in the intestinal mucosa of horses, donkeys, pigs and zebras . There are not many inibia worms. Parasitic female worms produce oval, thin-skinned embryonated eggs 8-9 mm long, 80-95 microns in diameter and measuring 40-52 x 32-40 microns. The gestation period is about 2 weeks.

Figure 5: Egg of Strongyloid westeri

Figure 6: Strongyloides westeri.- Worm

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