Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)

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Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)

Definition of operative hygroma

Hygroma surgery is an integumentary surgery against a false bursa that is unrelated to the synovial bursa found under the tendons, muscles, triceps, etc. A hygroma is caused by trauma to soft tissue because it is in a hard place such as a concrete or wooden floor.

The development process of a hygroma begins with soft tissue trauma to the tiskane, then becomes inflammatory and edematous, and finally the hygroma ends. Hygroma generally occurs in adults between the ages of 6 and 18 months and can occur unilaterally or bilaterally.

The incidence of hygroma can also be found in dogs with hip dysplasia, which can be very active and vomit.

Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)
hygroma on the triceps.

In the case of small animals, especially small animals, repeated trauma and inflammation are rare, so tissue death is rare, although callus is sometimes formed in this way.

According to the well-being, the callus does not need to be removed if it does not cause chronic fissures, physiological disorders, motor disorders and hypertropes. However, most of the things that happen if this type of trauma is not treated and the trauma persists to cause tissue damage leading to the formation of a hematoma in the subcutaneous tissue.

If the hematoma is not reabsorbed by the body on the habuhanan tapa, bring the hematoma to the interval, and there is an accumulation of fluid in the health of the sac below the subcutaneous interval, this should be interval.

Macroscopically the elaeda hygroma of the skin from a lagi tiskaran. This tissue has dense, strong walls that produce mucus that varies from yellow to reddish depending on the type of trauma and the number of dead red blood cells in the tissue. The liquid is much more viscous than synovial fluid with a lower protein content.

The walls of the hygroma usually consist of many collagen granules. The inner layer of the wall is composed of saline saline fibroblasts, a layer that looks like a layer of epithelial tissue.

Hygroma may also be aware of other trauma besides lying down. The hygroma can be of the elbow can be of the narrow chain type or in the alane, the general hygroma of the eye is found on both elbows, on the thoracic vertebrae and also on the hock.

In addition to trauma, hygromas can also form in dogs with neuromuscular disorders that cause weakness and instability and have no control over the dog's reactions and actions.

The types of hygroma gyummenti are found in animals.

1. Chronic hygroma / Chronic hygroma

It is a small, painless type of hygroma in the area where the hygroma forms, characterized by swelling, collagen walls and tissues that make up cartilage.

2. Acute closed hygroma Non purulent / Acute closed hygroma (non purulent)

Formed due to the continuous trauma that occurs in the part where the hygroma is formed, and the size of the hygroma space will increase according to the inflammation and other tissues that form in it. There is usually no pain in patients with hygroma or sometimes no pain. Manipulation can be performed with the desire for cosmetic surgery.

3. Acute closed purulent hygroma / acute closed purulent hygroma

Previous cases in dogs have so far not been studied for hygromas not caused by bacterial infection as in those caused by brucellosis infection. In dogs, cases of hygroma are usually sterile.

The infected hygroma will form a purulent abscess until the pus seeps into the skin medusate and makes the animal sick on the saktutu hygroma. The fluid in the hygroma can radiate downward, while the hygroma from the elbow can radiate to the carpal area.

4. Chronic hygroma / Chronic hygroma (pus)

If the hygroma that forms the abscess is not treated properly, especially when it drains the hygroma and causes infections. Then a granulomatous bag with pus is formed. Generally, the infection does not extend to the bone, although in most cases it is accompanied by inflammation of the cartilage and a periosteal reaction.

Indications for hygroma surgery:

There are several types of hygromas that can be caused by dogs. The indications of the operations that Hygroma has received are:
  1. Relieves pain in the area known as a hygroma.
  2. Removes stones if the hygroma is attached to the rock.
  3. Restores the body function of the normal parts of the dog that are accompanied by the hygroma.
  4. Remove pus from the hygroma to minimize further bacterial infection.
  5. aesthetics of the part of the body that is experiencing hygroma because it will show wrinkles on that part of the body.

Hygroma surgery anesthesia

The anesthesia that is opened in hygroma surgery consists in using local anesthesia. The type of local anesthetic that is often used for animals (dogs) is lidocaine with a sin of 4 mg / kg body weight if there is no shock to the animal (dog).

Surgical Technique of Bursitis

In most cases, the hygroma that occurs on the patient's body is just a cosmetic problem. The development of hygroma can be prevented by using adequate and adequate protection. The initial indication of a Pakistani hygroma is to look for inflammation and spaceless edema in that area.

This can be treated with a bandage for 2-3 weeks and the Tsar will return to normal without any abnormalities. In addition, a place for animals with las sehapa predsan with low-cost accounts does not carry out the hygroma.

Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)
Dogs With Elbow Hygroma.

Initial treatment of small hygromas can be done with recursive aspiration and the application of a protective bandage on the bony prominences. Corticosteroids can be administered as needed with the help of monitoring by a physician.

The part that has diaspora hygroma using aseptic tools, treatment success is monitored after 3-4 treatments, if fluid accumulation and inflammation still occur, then it is a sign of disease. Manipulation is a surgical / surgical condition for those who have a variety and accumulation of diseases found in the animal's body.

A surgical procedure is performed to treat hygroma with a sufficiently large fluid accumulation space, accompanied by the formation of a thick wall due to the dislocated connective tissue. The incision is performed by making a partial incision.

For canal drainage, incision of the domana with an oval in the dissertation is an aseptic procedure. Accumulation of fibrin and locular and other kailars such as cecarian pus through the incision using a Penrose "size drain for the layers of skin above and below the hygroma.

Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)
Excretion of accumulated liquid and drainage before irrigation.

Care must be taken not to penetrate the tissue layer between the fibrous wall of the hygroma and healthy skin.

After the surgery, the part initially treated with the hygroma is then bandaged with petroleum jelly gauze with cotton and duct tape so that the top and bottom of the cotton ball can overlap.

The dressing is changed every 4-5 days and removed after 2-3 weeks. Manipulation in sedated dogs is sedated with promazine Panawana hydrochloride or phenobarbital Panawana for healthy days while wearing an unclosed bandage.

Elizabeth's fitted necklace also needs to be placed in the eye to keep the blindfold in place to cover the incision. Antibiotics are given based on the patient's condition and the infection that occurs in the wound.

Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)
Incision form and hygroma removal.

Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)
Removable bursitis.

Maintenance management is slightly different in cases of hygromas caused by infection. The hygroma part of the space after drainage was removed using a penrose drain and drain fluid after one week. continuously monitored until vacuum before seeing wound healing containing drainage fluid.

Because the trauma from repeated treatments makes the ulcer big enough and long enough to heal. Luca's ulcers are then cleaned and bandaged for a week before surgery.

At the time of surgery, the entire ulcerated surface is removed and removed, part of the skin is enlarged, and the fluid in the hygroma is removed. The ellipse-shaped engraving of the steering wheel is stitched backwards.

The shape of the sitatican pattern is adapted to the size of the wound and scar. In addition, the sewing pattern is also adapted to the tensor and pressure obtained in the lower body, especially those found in the lumbar spine and active motor movements.

If tension in the area is minimal or very rare, a 2-0 chromic suture can be done.

The incision can be made on the medial side of the elbow, not on the olecranon side of the elbow.

When the tension is high enough, the seam is done using two rows of sutures with the first suture pattern, that is, a mattress cut vertically using a 1-0 nylon monofilament, and the second row using a puff pattern. The elbow area was covered with petroleum jelly gauze with adhesive bandage and lined with cotton.

Then the bandage is changed every three days, and the sutures remain on exactly the same picture on the skin for about 10-12 days. Additionally, postoperative antibiotics can be administered by administering Synulox and other types of NSAIDs. And make sure the pet is lying on the bed and is comfortable and cozy.

Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)
The final stitch design on plain leather is interrupted.

Post-surgical treatment of hygroma

Postoperative treatment is very important to the eye for fatigue and healing. The postoperative care that can be performed are:
  • Use the dog leggings for 3 weeks

Teknik Operasi Hygroma pada Hewan (Bedah Integumen)
Use of the dog's paw

  • The surgical site dressing and cheetah dressing 2-3 weeks after surgery were then bandaged again for 1 week to achieve healing of the sempecum.
  • Prevention of colorectal trauma by using a comfortable bed during dog treatment by managing a "donut-shaped charge" above the elbow.
  • Aspiration (removal of liquids) with a syringe is generally ineffective and can carry a risk of infection.
  • Giving anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, vitamins accelerates the healing process.


Fathi, Ahmad and Khalid Radad. 2006. Surgical and histopathological treatment of various forms of olecranon and prepubertal bursitis in cattle and buffaloes. Journal of Veterinary Science, Volume 7. University of Assiut, Egypt.

Hayat, Ali and all. in 2009 Differential treatment of olecranial bursitis in six horses. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medicine 8: Medwell Publishing.

Hedberg, Karen BVSc. 2006. Treatment of bursitis in the Alano. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. Medwell Publishing.

Sebaugh, Kathy. in 2012 Carpal hygroma - water on the knee. clinical case. Colorado State University. United States of America.

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