Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy pada Hewan (Bedah Genital)

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Judul : Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy pada Hewan (Bedah Genital)
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Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy pada Hewan (Bedah Genital)

Ovariohysterectomy is surgery to remove the ovaries and/or uterus.

A hysterotomy is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the uterus through the abdominal wall or through the vagina, while a hysterectomy is an operation to remove the entire uterus.

This operation is performed to sterilize female animals or to treat uterine diseases, the operation can also be performed to reduce the incidence of pyometra in non-sterile females.

Depending on the size and shape of the animal, the incision is made along the midline of the abdomen (white line of the abdomen), then the ovaries or uterus are planned, or only for purposes therapies.

Reproductive system and reproductive organs

The reproductive system is one of the reproductive systems found in the body of the body. The reproductive system of animals is made up of testicles, epididymis, penis, etc. While the reproductive system of female animals consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vulva, and vagina.

Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy (Bedah Genital)
Female Reproductive System Anatomy

Genitals or genitals are a means of reproduction that plays an important role in sustaining the existence of animals through reproduction.

General definition

An ovariohysterectomy is surgery to remove or remove the ovaries and/or uterus.

A hysterotomy is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the uterus through the abdominal wall or through the vagina, while a hysterectomy is an operation to remove the entire uterus.

This operation is performed to sterilize female animals to eliminate the estrus phase or to treat the risk of diseases occurring in the uterus, such as tumors of the ovaries, cervix and uterus. In addition, surgery is also performed to reduce the incidence of pyometra in non-sterile women.

Sterilization is usually done when the animal is still young. In the case of pymetra, sterilization is performed as a therapy due to water balance so that surgery can cure the disease.

Ovariohysterectomy, or OH, can be performed in almost any reproductive cycle, but is best performed before puberty and during the anestrus phase.

The purpose of the operation

Goals of Ovariohysterectomy (OH) Surgery

  1. Suppress and reduce the population of animals, especially falcons, which represent a great danger as vectors of diseases for humans.
  2. Genetic diseases and birth defects such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD), lysosomal storage disease and amyloidosis (in cats and dogs).
  3. Prevention or treatment of ovarian and uterine diseases, usually in young animals, ovarian and uterine diseases such as uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, polycystic ovaries, metritis or endometritis, mucometra, endometrial cystic hyperplasia, pyometra, ectopic pregnancy, uterine prolapse and torsion.
  4. Prevents or reduces diseases caused by hormonal disorders (estrogen and progesterone). These conditions include vaginal hyperplasia, breast neoplasia and tumors, breast enlargement, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, and false pregnancy. If HO occurs after the first estrus, the risk of developing a mammary tumor is 8%; When performed after the second estrous cycle, the risk of tumors increases by 26%, when performed after 2.5 years, OG is not an appropriate preventive measure to avoid breast tumors.

Goals of hysterotomy and hysterectomy surgery

  1. Sterilization of female animals.
  2. Hysterectomy for resistant pyometra.
  3. Take the necrotic uterus and the rotten fetus.

Anesthesia station

During the ovariohysterectomy (OH) operation, anesthesia is performed with regional or general anesthesia.

Meanwhile, for hysterotomy and hysterectomy surgery, general anesthesia is usually given by intravenous injection, or anesthesia in the lumbosacral intervertebral cavity (regional anesthesia) can also be used.

Pentobarbital sodium can be used for general anesthesia (light, short-acting). Sodium thiopental (very short-acting pentothal). Sagatal, compared to Pentotal, has a more depressing effect on the respiratory system, but is used more often.

Sagittal intravenous administration of a half dose is given at a moderate rate, wait one minute for anesthesia to take effect and continue for the last 2-4 minutes, noting the stage of anesthesia.

The dose of Sagatal is approximately 25 mg/kg body weight when given intravenously. Similarly, intravenous pentothal is used and the dose is about 20-25 mg/kg body weight or 2.5% pentothal.

For the purpose of pain relief, premedication with chlorpromazine (as a sedative) may be administered intramuscularly at a dose not exceeding 0.5 mg/kg body weight and administered 1-1.5 hours before anesthesia.

After the administration of the premedication, the anesthetic dose was reduced, the duration of anesthetic action was prolonged and the animals were protected from the danger of the anesthetic dose.



Instruments used in this operation include towel forceps, anatomical and syndic forceps, scalpels and blades, sharp and pointed straight scissors, curved scissors, arterial forceps, needle holders, stethoscopes, thermometers and small surgical instruments, including 1 ml syringes.


Prepared materials and preparations: swabs, dressings, Chromic Cat Gut 3.0 suture, sheets and aqua. Medications used include:

preliminary operation

Before the operation, first prepare for the operation. Preparation of equipment, materials, preparations, preparation of the operating room, training of animals and operators are carried out.

Preparation of instruments, materials and preparations

Sterilize with 70% alcohol in an autoclave for 15 minutes without sterilizing scissors and needles.

The purpose of instrument sterilization is to prevent instrument contamination during operations, which can accelerate wound healing.

b. Preparation of the operating room

The operating room is cleaned with a disinfectant. The operating table is sterilized with 70% alcohol.

Lighting in the operating room is very important to support the operation, therefore the preparation of the operating room lamp before the operation must provide sufficient lighting so that the area/area of operation is clearly visible.

in. Animal preparation

A preliminary physical examination is necessary before the operation. The physical examination includes:
  1. Signalman
  2. ballast
  3. age
  4. wrist
  5. Respiratory rate
  6. Body temperature
  7. and examination of other body systems (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, neurological, reproductive), organ and skin changes, which are recorded in the acts of an outpatient or veterinary examination.

Working method

A. Hysterotomy for dystocia

Animals were prepared for surgery as usual and then anesthetized. General anesthesia (epidural anesthesia) is used as anesthesia.
  1. After the introduction of anesthesia, the animal is placed on its back (lying on its back). Consists of the skin and white line of the abdomen along the ventral midline of the xiphoid process (at the lesser cranial umbilicus) to the edge of the pubis.
  2. A laparotomy pad or towel is placed over the edge of the incision to isolate the uterus from the abdominal cavity. The horn and the body of the uterus are gently retracted because it is very easy to tear the horn of the uterus and its blood vessels.
  3. Longitudinal incisions in the dorsal part of the body of the uterus were made carefully so as not to damage the fetus.
  4. The fetus is closer to the side in which it is pushed or pushed and presses on the uterus.
  5. The amniotic membrane is opened with fingers or scissors and the calf is removed. The umbilical cord is clamped and cut with two hemostats 3 cm from the pup's abdomen.
  6. The pup was transferred for further treatment and the placenta was carefully removed from the uterus.
  7. Other pups were assessed for the fracture site and removed one by one in the same manner.
  8. The uterine incision is closed with 2-0 or 3-0 chromium catgut with abdominal Lambert or Cushing sutures, and the abdominal white line is closed with simple interrupted 2-0 or 3 chromium catgut sutures -0, continuous subcutaneous and fascia and skin. With intermittent stitch pattern.
Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy (Bedah Genital)
Hyterotomy procedure

Puppies that have been expelled should have their mouths and noses wiped and dried.

Gently rub dry to stimulate circulation and respiration. If uterine contractions occur immediately after delivery of the fetus, oxytocin or ergonovine is given if uterine contractions do not occur.

b. Hysterectomy

The choice of anesthesia for surgery requires consideration of the drug delivery method, effects and economic considerations, drug delivery is equally important.

The anesthesia often used for hysterectomy can be intravenous general anesthesia or the lumbosacral intervertebral cavity (regional anesthesia).

General anesthesia can be used, including sodium pentobarbital, sodium thiopental, halothane, ether. The premedication often used is xylazine Hcl, atropine sulphate. Recently, during surgery, the anesthetic ketamine Hcl is often used.

  1. After that, the next operation is done, the operation that can be done is for the first time to cut the skin with a scalpel in the ventral part of the abdomen, because it is easy to get out of the uterus, ovaries , intestines and bladder to come .
  2. In the presence of bleeding under the skin, minimal clamping of the artery and tissues is performed. Then cut. The subcutaneous tissue is made cranially and caudally with fascial scissors and fascial incisions with another knife.
  3. The abdominal muscles are separated using blunt and dissecting scissors, then opened with scissors.
  4. The peritoneum is stretched like a muscle and retracted by famous people. The operator makes a small incision with a scalpel, the peritoneal incision is extended cranially and caudally with scissors, and the abdominal wall is carefully separated from the underlying layer. The omentum is retracted cranially with a hook to obtain the uterine horn from the abdominal incision.
  5. Uterine uterus uterus and tubal with chrome medium catgut 2-0 in a double song lyric
  6. Blood vessels that vascularize the uterus with the same thread. Then an incision is made between the doublets with a scalpel or scissors.
  7. Removal of the uterine stump by puncture. Same with the other mom.
  8. The uterus is retracted cranially, the base of the uterus and the top of the uterus are clamped, then tied with catgut.
  9. The uterine artery and vein are either sutured with the same thread. Then use the scalpel on the previous cut.
  10. Then check for bleeding in the cut blood vessel.
  11. The omentum is always replaced in the abdomen and 100-150 ml of sterile antibiotic saline solution is administered.
  12. The peritoneum was sutured with a continuous 2-0 medium chrome catgut suture. Then the muscle and fascia are sutured in the same way, and the subcutaneous tissue is sutured with the same stitches and sutures.
  13. The skin is tied with non-absorbable sutures in a horizontal mat pattern.
  14. The wound is covered with a dressing and antibiotics are given.
Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy (Bedah Genital)
Surgical hysterectomy procedure

in. Ovariohysterectomy (OG)

Anesthesia during surgery Ovarihysterectomy is performed under regional anesthesia or general anesthesia. Prior to anesthesia, premedication with atropine sulfate was performed.

In addition, the hair in the ventral region of the abdomen is shaved, placed in the supine position (on the back) and then shaved, cleaned and sterilized.

  1. As an operating field, the ventral part of the abdomen was prepared from the xiphoid process to the pubic region.
  2. The umbilicus was identified and the abdominal region was divided into three parts.
  3. In dogs, the incision is made caudally from the navel 1/3 more cranial than the abdominal up to 4-8 cm in the caudal direction. Another incision in the tail will facilitate the removal of the ovary.
  4. In the case of cats, the lower body is towards the leg, so it is more towards the leg, starting from the middle 1/3. ....
  5. An incision is made in the skin to open the white line and 4 to 8 centimeters below. लाइना अल्बा दारे राधा है देवर प्रविष्टी देवर भूर्य है। पेटेर गुबर अधिक लियना धेदती अक्डवेवे प्रशित है।।।।।।।।।।।।।
  6. The left abdominal wall was exposed and a hook was inserted over the ovariohysterectomy. 2-3 cm from the top
  7. ক্রন্যা জার্যু ক্র্যা ক্র্যান ক্র্যা ক্র্যায়া, ক্র্যায়িয়্যান্য ক্র্যান্যান্যান্য়্যায়্যায়্যা. ..
  8. If जरायूर cannot be obtained with a hook, the bladder is palpated along the incision. ..
  9. After palpating the body of the bladder and the large intestine, a ligament was found at the proximal end of the ovary.
  10. With टरजनी, the search ligament is pulled close to the blood vessels of the kidney and is severed.
  11. . 2 or 3 forceps are placed in view of the ovarian ligation.
  12. The maximum clamp is used to place the ligature while the middle clamp is used to hold the ligature while the distal clamp is used to stop blood flow after the transaction. .. .
  13. Ovarian Vascular Ligation uses secure '8' shaped suture (2-0, 3-0 Chrome Cat, Polydioxanone, Polyglyconate or 910)
  14. ???
  15. इम्बाशोय वर्ष्ट करा करा है हैंगर हैंगर का वार्ण करा करा करा करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें करें
  16. ক্রনুযা যুতির্রি ক্রনায়া অন্গান ক্রিক ক্র্ত ক্র্তা কিটিরির্র্রি কিটিরির্র্রি.
  17. After cutting both ovaries as described above, the body was pulled and the right body was given a 2-0 chromic catheter and the whole body was searched near the body. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .
  18. জরাযুর ক্ত্য্য ক্র্ত্য়া এক্ক্কাককাক্ককৰল র্জাপ্ট ক্লা লালাইশান.
  19. More information
  20. The abdominal wall was closed and made in three layers and the peritoneum was interrupted by continuous subcutaneous sutures and the interrupted suture pattern (skin)

Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy (Bedah Genital)
Oh on the position cut  

Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy (Bedah Genital)
operation area

Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy (Bedah Genital)
Cut to the mesovarium

Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy (Bedah Genital)
जरायु कोर्तनकारी

Teknik Operasi Ovariohisterectomy, Hysterectomy dan Hysterotomy (Bedah Genital)

after operation

The basic principle of ovariohysterectomy, hysterotomy and hysterectomy surgery is to monitor the temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and condition of the animal.

Secondary infection prevention should be widely used. Elizabeth Caller's movement speed can be limited to protect the operated area.

The sutures are opened on the 7th day of operation and during the treatment period actions are changed and tincture is given and applied around the sutures. .. .


After the surgery, the patient needs postoperative care. .. Dogs should be placed in a clean place and fed, the incisions are regularly checked. ..

Antibiotics given to prevent bacterial infections. Penicillin powder is also given in case of surgical scars. ..

After 5-7 days, the dog is declared healthy if the stitches are dry and the dog is normal.


After completing the operation, they are treated with more attention by providing them with a healthy and clean environment and nutritious food.


Penicillin powder is given to prevent infection of surgical scars. After 5-7 days, the sutures are removed or the sutures dry out. If the surgical wound is dry and the general condition of the dog is good, the dog can be declared cured.


Postoperative care provides adequate nutrition, medications to aid the healing process, and medications to prevent secondary infections such as antibiotics.

Additionally, animal cleanliness must be maintained, as surgical wounds are very easy for infectious agents to penetrate. Postoperative care was taken for 14 days to maximize the healing process.

அப்பைக்குத்து குரியுக்க்குட்டிமை, हैस्टेरोटमी अग्यस्टरेक्तमी

After an ovariohysterectomy, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy, various complications can occur, including:


Bleeding after ovariohysterectomy, hysterotomy, and surgical hysterectomy have been reported as the most common cause of death. If the suspensive ligament is stretched (प्रसारित), the दिम्बाशायर रक्टनली फेटे जाने रक्टपात है।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।।

அக்க்கு ஦ிம்ம்ப்பு सिंड्रोम

This syndrome causes animals to come into heat after ovariohysterectomy. This is due to the incomplete recovery of the ovaries.

जरायु stump pyometra, inflammation and granulomas.

genital tract fistula

A fistula develops from the inflammatory reaction of the surgical material (thread).

प्रिणे असंग्यम

the next हैक्ष्टी मुत्रवाशोय sphincter उत्तर करें पारे ना. அத்தை ஜார்யுர் குக்கை (அவிஷித்து) குற்று (ஆதாலு) பார்கு பார்க்கு பார்க்கை மாய்றுக்காயு பின்க்க்கர்கர்ரைக்கு.


Sudhisma, IGN, GAGPemayun., AAGJ Wardhita., IWGorda. 2006. वेटेरिनारी सर्जीय वारा उपर्योग उर्डिया i. पेलावा सारी. denpasar

Good day, Christopher. सहचर स्वायानेड अग्योरियोश्रेक्टमी एक अर्कियक्तमिर के लिएक्ति. 41 (2011) 1023–1039

Gotham, Bart et al. 2006. A judicious choice between ovarioectomies and ovariohysterectomies in dogs: a discussion of the advantages of the two techniques. Veterinary Surgery 35:136 - 143

Hill, Lawrence, Daniel Smek. காட்டை சியுட்டை உவிரியிரைக்கிட்டிர் பென் ஸாப்ப்புப்ப்ப்பு மாஜம் ததிர் தக்கை. This article

Kirpensteijn, Jolle. 2008. Elder versus Elder. சிர்ர்ட்டு தர்க்கு IVIS. Italy

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