Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)

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Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)

The thoracic cavity is the second largest body cavity (the main largest is the abdominal cavity and the third largest is the pelvic cavity). The lines are compressed laterally, unlike the lines of humans and primates which are compressed anteriorly and posteriorly.

Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove accumulated fluid or air from the thoracic region. The purpose of Dinkana thoracosynthesis is to aid in blockage and therapy.

As a therapy, thoracentesis can be used to remove fluid or air in the chest area that is causing the animal to have difficulty breathing. As a diagnosis used to collect regional chest fluid for d'evaluaci.

When conducting thoracocentesis, a calm understanding of the anatomy of the blood vessels in the process of making paintings in the process of sticking the needle, in order to prevent clinical conditions due to needle sticking, clinical conditions between the lines are:
One. Hematoma
two ischemia
3. neuritis
four External paralysis of the intercostal muscles.

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Position to perform thoracocentesis in the pelvis

Define and guide thoracentesis
Thoracokinthesis is the term applied to clinical techniques for removing fluid or blowing from the chest cavity. General thoracentesis is performed to treat fluid accumulation in the chest cavity. Indications for dilacular thoracentesis are:
  1. Shortness of breath is caused by accumulated fluid and air in the chest cavity.
  2. Fluid analysis in the diagnostic clinic.

Accumulation of trauma and effusion in the thoracic cavity is an uncommon condition. Carina that accumulates in the chest is usually caused by various diseases such as:

  1. Heart failure
  2. crayfish
  3. Terrible look, Dan
  4. Bacterial infections are produced by viruses.

Meanwhile, excess air in the piston often causes severe damage. Excessive fluid or air accumulation in the chest can be detected using radiography / X-ray, which is done to confirm the correct position of the thoracosynchronus. Fluid or excessive air accumulation in the piston sometimes makes breathing difficult.

Accumulated fluid needs to be quickly removed and evaluated for diagnostic purposes. For this thoracentesis.

In horses, indications for thoracentesis are pleuropneumonia, chest cleavage infiltrates, thoracic neoplasia, and the presence of hydatid cysts.

Several things should be observed and avoided when performing thoracokinesis, such as not performing thoracosynthesis on infected skin, the risk of bleeding in patients that are difficult to remove with blood coagulation. Before performing thoracentesis, the patient should first be reviewed.

Currently, contraindications for performing thoracentesis are bleeding due to anticoagulant toxins, severe thrombocytopenia, and decreased coagulopathy. Existing stroke volume has the potential to influence the rate of respiratory death compromise.

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Horses with pleuropneumonia

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
A 17-year-old horse, Ian, has pleuropneumonia on ultrasound.

Position for Thoracentesis

Pay attention to the line showing that the bicycle thoraces are carried on small animals such as dogs, as well as large animals such as cows and horses.

one) On Hevan Kecil.

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Pad Anzing Thoracentesis

two) Kiss Eva.

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Thoracentesis in cattle

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Thoracentesis in horses

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Location of Thoracocentesis Surgery in Dogs and Horses

Farspan thoracentesis

The location of the stab depends on the ejecting material, punch or stroke, although technically the basics of the world are the same. The needle should be inserted through the middle of the intercostal space.

This is done to avoid directing the blood vessels and nerves into the CC flow of each side. Aseptic conditions should be followed immediately, and the operator should wear sterile gloves to avoid infection-iatrogenic introduction from the pleural space.

Assessment of painting potential is very important in performing thoracentesis. The patient should first have a chest X-ray to determine where the cyst or air has accumulated. If an X-ray is not available, a thoracic percussion procedure may be used to detect fluid and air accumulation in the chest.

Determine the area for thoracentesis. Local anesthesia so that Hevan does not feel pain during a thoracic fusion. Local Anesthesia Use penetrating local anesthetics.

The equipment required to perform Thorakosintez is:
  • Sterile needles: 18-23 caliber cats, 18-21 caliber dogs.

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
A needle is one of the needles used to see a thorax fusion operation

  • Both use subfine needles 1”
  • In the case of Animals for Bih Kissing, the Bih Kissing Needle is also about 16th gauge with an extended length, so that the Bih Kissing needle can penetrate the musli.
  • Some practitioners prefer to use polyethylene catheters which are flexible and can be removed from the needle once the needle has been injected. This greatly reduces lung injury when the needle is fixed and the animal is suddenly moved. It is recommended to connect an additional hose between the syringe and the needle so that we can manipulate the syringe without removing the needle. This move can also reduce pulmonary skin tone.

Before performing a thoracocentesis, it must be known for certain that palisade involves palisade structures, such as the pleura and pleura. Fluid accumulates in the costamidiastinal recess and costadiaphragm, so these nipples are aspirated during thoracogenesis, for various reasons, namely:

  • Arenia is large and has no gut, so food can be collected freely.
  • Because the pulmonary or structural lines are not malabsorbed for this recess, the risk of laceration or structural damage due to thoracocentesis is minimal.

Before surgery, the animal is restrained in a standing position or lateral or sternal recumbent surgery is not possible.

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Stylish Teflon catheter       

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Butterfly catheter


In doing thoracosynthesis hevan must be in kidan tenerg. Therefore the animal must be restrained chemically or with mild dengue.

Since then, the animal does not feel pain during the insertion into the chest, the animal needs local anesthesia where the needle was inserted.

The local anesthesia that is administered must reach under the skin but not into the chest. Local anesthetics are usually 1% or 2% lidocaine used.

  • Premedication
The most common drugs used by thoracosynthesis technicians are midazolam (0.2 mg/kg body weight), and ketamine (5 mg/kg body weight).
  • induction
Induction is given using propofol (6 mg/kg body weight) intravenously, or diazepam (0.3 mg/kg body weight) with ketamine (3 mg/kg body weight) given intravenously. Perform endotracheal intubation with a tube cuff.
  • serve
Isoflurane or halothane is used with 100% oxygen. Perform occasional positive ventilation if necessary. Local anesthetic is infiltrated around the trocar or needle junction.

Thoracentesis procedure

The syringe is injected into the parietal pleura at 45° to avoid aspiration of the pulmonary parenchyma by the needle while the aspirate is canned.

Hevan must be in possis bardiri, or if not mankin, be lateral or move decubitus.

Once entered through the pleural space, secure and hold the needle against the body wall to reduce the risk of pulmonary ulceration. The needle is inserted through the superficial fascia, tegument and muscle.

Second, the needle is brought 1 cm in the dorsal or ventral direction and continues to prick all the parietal muscles and the pleura up to the nadus.

Thus, when the needle is nebulized, the two holes through which the needle is inserted are not aligned to reduce the risk of pneumothorax.

If fluid or air is difficult to enter, the needle should be pulled back slightly before turning the needle to the other side. Another option, use another CC book. Because the pilmo newspaper sucks when it expires, then if it's mankin, it forces the needle when the haven expires.

a) Fluid intake in dogs:

In dogs laced on 1/3 chest ventral to 6-8th intercostal space.

Thus, the needle will be inserted into the pleural cavity and directed cranially toward the costophrenic line to reduce the risk of laser damage to the lungs so that it is inserted through the chest rather than the abdomen.

Although there is no specific handle for fixed domestic animals with dogs for comparison, thoracocentesis can be safely performed by inserting the needle across the line of the cranial diaphragm, decidal margo bellis pulmora, 1/3 of the abdominal cavity.

The needle puncture is on the lower surface of the liquid, it is done slowly and the hole at the base of the needle is first closed with the fingers so that air does not enter the pleura.

The puncture must be done carefully to avoid puncture of the lateral thoracic vein.

The hemostat uses drainage to prevent fluid from entering the pleural space during inspiration. After celseye, the needle is removed from the hole in the skin of the bench, smeared or closed with a flexible collodion.  

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Location of Thoracentesis

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Prose for thoracocentesis

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Thoracentesis fishing (top) and casing (bottom)

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Thoracentesis in Cusing

b) Expulsion of air:

Perform in intercostal spaces from 6-8, but at the highest point of the chest. This technique varies greatly depending on the position of the animal when it is performed. In a standing position or sternal recumbency, 1/3 dorsal, mid thorax in a lateral recumbency position.

c) on a horse

Do this using an exchange held in the chest cavity. Performed on the left side, namely in the intercostal area of ​​-8 and on the right in the intercostal area of ​​-7.

The needle or trocar is placed on the surface below the fluid which is removed, slowly, and the opening of the needle or trocar is closed with the finger first to prevent air from entering the pleura.

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)

Teknik Operasi Thoracocentesis pada Hewan (Bedah Thoraks)
Where is the thoracocentesis?

After thoracocentesis

After thoracentesis, the needle or trocar chair is slowly removed. and bench leather holes lubricated or covered with a flexible collodion.

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